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CHAPTER 19 SECURITY
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Figure 19 8. Installing certificates via e-mail This key is called salt and is usually a random set of bits, such as an employee identification number, that is used to make the AES-encrypted message harder for intruders to decrypt. HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 algorithms both generate a unique message authentication code (MAC) from the data and password supplied. Both algorithms use the same approach to generating MAC: they take data and hash it with the secret key using standard hash function SHA1 and SHA256 correspondingly. The difference between HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 lies in the strength of the message generated: HMACSHA1 output is 160 bits long, while HMACSHA256 has output 256 bits in length. Finally, Rfc2898DeriveBytes is an algorithm that relies on the HMACSHA1 function to generate a strong key, using the password and salt values supplied, to be used to encrypt and decrypt data. In the following walkthrough, you will see how the Rfc2898DeriveBytes algorithm is used to generate a set of keys for the AES-based encryption.
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Note Do not store password or salt values in application code. It is extremely easy to peek at compiled .NET code using tools such as Ildasm.exe or even a simple text editor and retrieve the value of the password/salt.
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CHAPTER 19 SECURITY
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In the first data security walkthrough, you will experiment with HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 algorithms to observe the keys that those algorithms generate from the input and password/salt values supplied. In the second walkthrough, you will encrypt and decrypt data on the device using the AES algorithm.
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Using HMACSHA1 and HMACHSHA256
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Both HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 functions are one-way: once the message authentication code is generated using either of those functions, it is impossible to recreate the original message from the generated MAC. This makes those functions ideal for storing values of security codes: the only way to produce a match of the MAC on those values is to supply a valid password and security code. The following walkthrough demonstrates how to generate HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 messages.
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Creating a User Interface
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The application interface will consist of textboxes to accept a message and password to create a MAC from, and it will show the MAC generated using both HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 algorithms. 1. 2. Open Visual Studio Express for Windows Phone and create a new project called HMACTest. Make MainPage.xaml look like Figure 19 9. For reference, the XAML of this page is pasted here (and don t forget that you can also download all code samples for this book):
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<!--LayoutRoot contains the root grid where all other page content is placed--> <Grid x:Name="LayoutRoot" Background="Transparent"> <Grid.RowDefinitions> <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/> <RowDefinition Height="*"/> </Grid.RowDefinitions> <!--TitlePanel contains the name of the application and page title--> <StackPanel x:Name="TitlePanel" Grid.Row="0" Margin="24,24,0,12"> <TextBlock x:Name="ApplicationTitle" Text="MY APPLICATION" Style="{StaticResource PhoneTextNormalStyle}"/> <TextBlock x:Name="PageTitle" Text="HMAC Test" Margin="-3,-8,0,0" Style="{StaticResource PhoneTextTitle1Style}"/> </StackPanel> <!--ContentPanel - place additional content here--> <Grid x:Name="ContentGrid" Grid.Row="1"> <Button Content="Generate" Height="72" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="149,437,0,0" Name="button1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="160" Click="button1_Click" /> <TextBox Height="72" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="149,23,0,0" Name="txtMessage" Text="" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="317" /> <TextBlock Height="99" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="21,216,0,0" Name="textBlock1" Text="TextBlock" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="445" TextWrapping="Wrap" /> <TextBlock Height="114" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="24,321,0,0" Name="textBlock2" Text="TextBlock" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="442" TextWrapping="Wrap" />
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CHAPTER 19 SECURITY
<TextBlock Height="30" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="21,44,0,0" Name="textBlock3" Text="Message:" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="122" /> <TextBlock Height="30" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="21,129,0,0" Name="textBlock4" Text="Key:" VerticalAlignment="Top" /> <TextBox Height="72" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="149,101,0,0" Name="txtKey" Text="" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="246" /> </Grid> </Grid>
Coding the Application Logic
The next step is to add logic that takes advantage of the cryptography classes on Windows Phone 7 to show Message Authentication Codes. 1. Add the following using directive to the top of the page: Because you want all of the encryption logic to happen on the button click, add an event handler to the Click event of the Generate button. To do that, doubleclick the Generate button and paste the following code inside the handler. Note how after declaring the HMACSHA1 and HMACSHA256 classes, all of the magic happens in the ComputeHash function, which returns an array of bytes that you convert to the hexadecimal string. string message = txtMessage.Text; string key = txtKey.Text; System.Text.UTF8Encoding encoding = new System.Text.UTF8Encoding(); byte[] keyByte = encoding.GetBytes(key); HMACSHA1 hmacsha1 = new HMACSHA1(keyByte); HMACSHA256 hmacsha256 = new HMACSHA256(keyByte); byte[] messageBytes = encoding.GetBytes(message); byte[] hashmessage = hmacsha1.ComputeHash(messageBytes); textBlock1.Text = ConvertToString(hashmessage); hashmessage = hmacsha256.ComputeHash(messageBytes); textBlock2.Text = ConvertToString(hashmessage);
using System.Security.Cryptography; 2.
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