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Creating and Consuming Web Services
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Building web services requires three essential steps: Creating the web service Creating a proxy for the web service Creating the client or consumer application of the web service All the modern software development platforms introduce the concept of a proxy while performing remote communication. A proxy is an entity that stands in for some other entity and pretends to your client application that the proxy itself is the actual web service. In doing so, the proxy shields you from low-level network programming details (such as socket programming, underlying protocols, communication formats, and security). Your client application never talks with the web service directly. All the communication (request as well as response) is passed through the proxy. If the proxy wants to pretend that the proxy itself is the web service, it must look like the web service. To help the proxy look like the web service, the web service standards provide a format called Web Services Description Language (WSDL). WSDL is an XML dialect that
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C H APTE R 9 XM L WEB S ERVI CES
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describes the web service, listing details such as the functions exposed by the web service, their parameters, data types, and return values. The proxy constructs itself by using this WSDL document of a web service. The file extension used by .NET web services is .asmx. The web services are developed as classes and can have code behind them just like ASP.NET web forms.
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Creating a Web Service
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To create a web service by using Visual Studio, you need to create a new website and choose ASP.NET Web Service as the project type. Figure 9-1 shows the New Web Site dialog box of Visual Studio.
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Figure 9-1. Creating a new web service After you create the project, you should see a file called Service.asmx. This file contains the markup shown in Listing 9-1. Listing 9-1. @WebService Directive <%@ WebService Language="C#" CodeBehind="~/App_Code/Service.cs" Class="Service" %> The @WebService directive specifies that this is a web service. Note that the CodeBehind attribute points to a file located in the App_Code folder (Service.cs). The Class attribute specifies the class from the CodeBehind file that contains web service functionality. If you open the Service.cs file, you should see something similar to Listing 9-2.
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CHAPTER 9 XML WEB SERVICE S
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Listing 9-2. The Web Service Class [WebService(Namespace = "http://tempuri.org/")] public class Service : System.Web.Services.WebService { [WebMethod] public string HelloWorld() { return "Hello World"; } } Here we have a class called Service that inherits from the System.Web.Services.WebService class. Actually, inheriting from the WebService class is not mandatory, but doing so will give you added facilities such as state maintenance. Inside this class we have a public method called HelloWorld(). The method by itself does not contain anything special you must have written many such methods in your own applications. What makes it special, however, is the WebMethod attribute, which makes the method web callable that is, the client application can call this method over a network. Your class can contain any number of public or private methods. However, only the methods that are public and decorated with the WebMethod attribute are web callable. Notice that the Service class is decorated with the [WebService] attribute. The [WebService] attribute is used to specify some additional information about the web service such as its description and namespace. The Namespace property indicates the default XML namespace to use for the XML web service. The XML namespaces allow you to uniquely identify elements and attributes from an XML document. Every web service needs to have a unique XML namespace to identify itself so that client applications can distinguish it from other web services. By default this namespace is set to http://tempuri.org/ but it is recommended that you change it to some other URI. For example, you can use the domain name of your company as the namespace. Note that although many times the XML namespaces are URLs, they need not point to actual resources on the Web. Run the application and you should see something similar to Figure 9-2. You might be wondering why our web service is showing this user interface when we know that web services do not have a user interface. Actually, this is not a user interface for the web service. This interface is called a web service help page and allows you to test your web services. Because web services by themselves do not have a user interface, how will you or your clients test them to see whether they function correctly To help you in such cases, ASP.NET generates these help pages automatically. At the top of the help page you will see a link titled Service Description. Just click on it and you will be presented with the WSDL of your web service (see Figure 9-3).
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