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C H APTE R 9 XM L WEB S ERVI CES
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Figure 9-2. Web Service help page
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Figure 9-3. WSDL of a web service
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CHAPTER 9 XML WEB SERVICE S
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Have a look in the address bar. Do you see the WSDL in the query string This is how you can manually retrieve the WSDL of any ASP.NET web service. Simply attach WSDL at the end of the web service URL and you get the WSDL. Click the Back button to return to the previous page. You will notice the list of web methods (operations). Click the HelloWorld web method. You will be taken to another help page wherein you can execute this web method (see Figure 9-4).
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Figure 9-4. Invoking a web method Before you click the Invoke button, have a look below it. You should see markup as shown in Listings 9-3 and 9-4. Listing 9-3. SOAP Request POST /WebServiceDemos/Service.asmx HTTP/1.1 Host: localhost Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: length SOAPAction: "http://tempuri.org/HelloWorld" < xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <soap:Envelope xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"> <soap:Body> <HelloWorld xmlns="http://tempuri.org/" /> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope>
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Listing 9-4. SOAP Response HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: length < xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <soap:Envelope xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"> <soap:Body> <HelloWorldResponse xmlns="http://tempuri.org/"> <HelloWorldResult>string</HelloWorldResult> </HelloWorldResponse> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope> These two blocks represent the SOAP request being sent to the web service and the SOAP response being received from the web service. As you can see, the SOAP request and response consist of a tag called <soap:Envelope>. Inside there is a mandatory tag called <soap:Body>. The Body tag contains the XML data being passed or returned. There can be an optional tag, <soap:Header>, inside the <soap:Envelope> tag that can be used to pass arbitrary data to the web service. Now click the Invoke button. The help page will execute the web method and open another window to show the web method response s(see Figure 9-5).
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Figure 9-5. Hello World response Now, close the browser and return to Visual Studio. Modify the HelloWorld() method as shown in Listing 9-5. Listing 9-5. Web Method with a String Parameter [WebMethod] public string HelloWorld(string name) { return "Hello " + name; }
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CHAPTER 9 XML WEB SERVICE S
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Here we have added one string parameter to the HelloWorld() method. The method now returns Hello concatenated with the name supplied. Run the web service again. This time you should see a help page as shown in Figure 9-6 for invoking the web method.
Figure 9-6. Invoking a web method with a string parameter ASP.NET automatically generates a text box for you to enter the parameter. Of course this works only for primitive data types such as strings and integers. ASP.NET will not be able to do so for array, object, or collection parameters.
Creating Overloaded Web Methods
Just as you create an overloaded method for a standard class, you can also create an overloaded web method. However, this requires a bit of work on your part. If you simply create two web methods with the same name but different parameters and run the web service, you will receive an error. To rectify the error, you need to modify the WebMethod attribute of one of the web methods as shown in Listing 9-6. Listing 9-6. Overloading Web Methods [WebMethod] public string HelloWorld() { return "Hello World"; }
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[WebMethod(MessageName="HelloWorldAgain")] public string HelloWorld(string name) { return "Hello " + name; } The code modifies the WebMethod attribute of the second method and sets the MessageName property to an alternate name (or alias) for that version of the web method. In the XML markup that is generated internally during the request and response, this alternate name is used instead of the actual method name. However, as you will see later, the proxy is intelligent enough to provide overloaded versions of web methods in the client application. Figure 9-7 shows what the overloaded web methods look like in the help page.
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