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Returning the Schema of the XML
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The XMLSCHEMA clause of the FOR XML clause allows you to return the XSD schema of the XML data being returned. You may use this schema to validate your data further in your application. Listing 10-5 shows how the XMLSCHEMA clause is used.
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CHAPTER 10 XML IN S QL SERVE R
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Listing 10-5. Returning an XSD Schema SELECT EmployeeID,FirstName,LastName FROM Employees FOR XML AUTO, XMLSCHEMA <xsd:schema targetNamespace="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:sql:SqlRowSet1" xmlns:schema="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:sql:SqlRowSet1" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:sqltypes="http://schemas.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2004/sqltypes" elementFormDefault="qualified"> <xsd:import namespace="http://schemas.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2004/sqltypes" schemaLocation="http://schemas.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2004/sqltypes/sqltypes.xsd"/> <xsd:element name="Employees"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:attribute name="EmployeeID" type="sqltypes:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="FirstName" use="required"> <xsd:simpleType><xsd:restriction base="sqltypes:nvarchar" sqltypes:localeId="1033" sqltypes:sqlCompareOptions="IgnoreCase IgnoreKanaType IgnoreWidth" sqltypes:sqlSortId="52"> <xsd:maxLength value="10"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:attribute> <xsd:attribute name="LastName" use="required"> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="sqltypes:nvarchar" sqltypes:localeId="1033" sqltypes:sqlCompareOptions="IgnoreCase IgnoreKanaType IgnoreWidth" sqltypes:sqlSortId="52"> <xsd:maxLength value="20"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:attribute> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> <Employees xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:sql:SqlRowSet1" EmployeeID="1" FirstName="Nancy" LastName="Davolio"/> <Employees xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:sql:SqlRowSet1" EmployeeID="2" FirstName="Andrew" LastName="Fuller"/> .... As you can see, the XMLSCHEMA clause returns the XSD schema along with the data.
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The PATH Mode
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Though the AUTO and RAW modes return data in XML format, you have very little control over the nesting and naming conventions of the returned data. The PATH mode, on the other hand, allows you to specify the nesting structure as well as element and attribute names by using simple XPath
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CHAPTER 10 XML IN S QL SERVE R
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syntax. Suppose you wish to retrieve records from the Employee table in the format shown in Listing 10-6. Listing 10-6. Custom Nesting and Naming <Employee ID="1"> <Name> <FirstName>Nancy</FirstName> <LastName>Davolio</LastName> </Name> </Employee> Each record is to be returned as an <Employee> element. The EmployeeID column value is to be returned as the ID attribute of the <Employee> element. There should be an element named <Name> with two further subelements: <FirstName> and <LastName>. The <FirstName> and <LastName> elements should contain data from the FirstName and LastName columns, respectively. To retrieve XML data in this format, you can use the PATH mode as shown in Listing 10-7. Listing 10-7. Using the PATH Mode of the FOR XML Clause SELECT EmployeeID "@ID",FirstName "Name/FirstName",LastName "Name/LastName" FROM Employees FOR XML PATH ('Employee') As you can see, the SELECT query now specifies certain extra pieces of information along with the column names. We wish to return the EmployeeID column value as the ID attribute and hence the query adds @ID after the EmployeeID column. Similarly, the FirstName and the LastName columns are followed by the desired nesting and element names, that is, Name/FirstName and Name/LastName, respectively. The name of the element generated is specified after the PATH mode in parentheses. Notice how the XPath syntax (@, /) is used to specify the attributes and element nesting.
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The EXPLICIT Mode
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The EXPLICIT mode is possibly the most confusing mode of the FOR XML clause. On one hand it increases the complexity of the SELECT statement, but on the other it gives much more fine-grained control on the resultant output.
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Note I will discuss the EXPLICIT mode only to the extent of giving a feeling of how it renders the XML output. In no way does this book try to teach you the EXPLICIT mode apart from the basics. If you wish to learn about the EXPLICIT mode in detail, you may consider Pro SQL Server 2005 by Thomas Rizzo and others (Apress, 2005) or Pro SQL Server 2008 XML by Michael Coles (Apress, 2008).
Suppose that you wish to return the XML content as shown in Listing 10-8.
CHAPTER 10 XML IN S QL SERVE R
Listing 10-8. Customized XML Output Using EXPLICIT Mode <Employee EmpID="1"> <FirstName>Nancy</FirstName> <LastName>Davolio</LastName> </Employee> You can identity two levels in this markup. Level 1 consists of the <Employee> element, and level 2 consists of the <FirstName> and <LastName> elements. The EmployeeID column is outputted as the EmpID attribute of the <Employee> element and hence belongs to level 1. When using EXPLICIT mode to generate this XML output, we will need to write two SELECT queries: The first query will outline the structure, nesting, and element names of the various columns involved. The second query will actually fetch the data. The results of the two queries will be merged with a UNION clause. Let s look at the first SELECT query (see Listing 10-9). Listing 10-9. Defining the Structure of the XML Output SELECT 1 AS Tag, NULL AS Parent, EmployeeID AS [Employee!1!EmpID], FirstName AS [Employee!1!FirstName!element], LastName AS [Employee!1!LastName!element] FROM Employees The query selects five columns: 1, NULL, EmployeeID, FirstName, and LastName. The last three columns are obvious, but what are 1 and NULL The Tag and Parent columns are implicit columns in the resultant table that are created by SQL Server internally: The Tag column specifies the nesting level of the current element. A Tag value of 1 indicates that this query is defining the structure for level 1 of the XML output. The Parent column specifies the parent level of the current tag. A Parent value of NULL indicates that this is the top-level element. Each column specified after the Parent column has some metadata specifications enclosed in square brackets. Multiple pieces of metadata are separated by an exclamation character (!): The first part indicates the name of the parent element of the current element or attribute. The second part indicates the tag number of the element. The third part indicates the name of the current element or attribute. If you specify only these three parts, the column value will be outputted as an attribute. To specify that it should be outputted as an element, you must specify the fourth part. The fourth part is a predefined keyword called element.
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