c# barcode code 39 This case is shown in Example 4-1, where the second parameter is defaulted to 3. in C#

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This case is shown in Example 4-1, where the second parameter is defaulted to 3.
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Adapter interface has more parameters than adaptee interface The adapter adds the missing functionality, making it half an adapter and half a component in its own right. Adapter interface has other types than adaptee interface The adapter performs some type conversion (casting).
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This case is shown in Example 4-1, where the first double parameter is created from an integer and the double return type is cast back to a string.
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Adapter Pattern
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Of course, combinations of these basic cases are also possible.
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Two-Way Adapters
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Adapters provide access to some behavior in the Adaptee (the behavior required in the ITarget interface), but Adapter objects are not interchangeable with Adaptee objects. They cannot be used where Adaptee objects can because they work on the implementation of the Adaptee, not its interface. Sometimes we need to have objects that can be transparently ITarget or Adaptee objects. This could be easily achieved if the Adapter inherited both interfaces; however, such multiple inheritance is not possible in C#, so we must look at other solutions. The two-way adapter addresses the problem of two systems where the characteristics of one system have to be used in the other, and vice versa. An Adapter class is set up to absorb the important common methods of both and to provide adaptations to both. The resulting adapter objects will be acceptable to both sides. Theoretically, this idea can be extended to more than two systems, so we can have multiway adapters, but there are some implementation limitations: without multiple inheritance, we have to insert an interface between each original class and the adapter. Our Macintosh example has a follow-up that illustrates this point nicely. With an Intel processor on board, a Mac can run the Windows operating system.* Windows, of course, is targeted directly for the Intel processor and will make use of its SSE instructions where necessary. In such a situation, we can view Windows and Mac OS X as two clients wanting to get access to the Adaptee (the Intel processor). The Adapter catches both types of instruction calls and translates them if required. For an instruction issued by an application, the situation on the different operating systems running on a Mac with an Intel processor can be summed up using pseudocode as follows: Mac OS X
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ExecuteAltiVec(instruction);
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ExecuteSEE(instruction);
Adapter
void ExecuteAltiVec(instruction) { ExecuteSSE(ConvertToSSE(instruction)); } void ExecuteSSE(instruction) { Intel.ExecuteSSE(instruction); }
* Windows runs on a Mac with the help of the Parallels or BootCamp virtual machines.
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4: Structural Patterns: Adapter and Fa ade
A key point with a two-way adapter is that it can be used in place of both ITarget and the Adaptee. When called to execute AltiVec instructions, the adapter behaves as a PowerPC processor (the Target), and when called to execute SSE instructions, it behaves as an Intel processor (the Adaptee).
Example: The Seabird
We have already looked at some theory code and discussed an interesting application of the Adapter pattern concept. It is now time for an example. That illustrates a two-way adapter but sticks closely to the structure of Example 4-1. Suppose an inventor has an embedded control system for a revolutionary water plane called the Seabird. The plane derives from both aircraft and seacraft design: specifically, the Seabird has the body of a plane but the controls and engine of a ship. Both parts are being assembled as-is. The inventor of the Seabird is adapting as much as he can so that it is possible to control the craft via the interfaces provided by both parts. In pattern terms, the Seabird will be a two-way adapter between the Aircraft and Seacraft classes. When running the experiments on the Seabird, the inventor will use an adapter and will be able to access methods and data in both classes. In other words, Seabird will behave as both an Aircraft and a Seacraft. We could get a simple adapter to behave as an Aircraft, say, and use the features of a Seacraft, but we could not do this the other way as well. With a two-way adapter, however, this is possible. The ITarget interface, IAircraft, has two properties, Airborne and Height, and one method, TakeOff. The Aircraft class implements the interface in the manner of an aircraft. The IAdaptee interface, ISeacraft (new in this version of the pattern), has two methods Speed and IncreaseRevs that are implemented by the Seacraft class. The Adapter inherits from the Adaptee (Seacraft) and implements the ITarget (IAircraft) in the normal way. The adapter then has to do some work to match these two different interfaces to each other. Table 4-1 makes it easier to see how one would approach such an adapter.
Table 4-1. Adapter pattern Seabird example methods and properties Aircraft (Target) Seacraft (Adaptee) Seabird (Adapter) Inherits Seabird, implements Aircraft Methods
TakeOff sets Airborne and Height to 200 IncreaseRevs changes speed by 10 TakeOff involves Seacraft, IsFlying, and IncreaseRevs IncreaseRevs calls Seacraft IncreaseRevs and Seacraft IsFlying and seabird.TakeOff goes to Seabird
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