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Objects are usually instantiated from classes that are part of the program. The Prototype pattern presents an alternative route by creating objects from existing prototypes. The UML for the Prototype pattern is given in Figure 5-1.
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Class +Operation( ) <<interface>> IPrototype +Clone( ) +DeepCopy( )
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Prototype +Clone( )
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PrototypeManager
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Given a key, the program creates an object of the required type, not by instantiation, but by copying a clean instance of the class. This process of copying, or cloning, can be repeated over and over again. The copies, or clones, are objects in their own right, and the intention of the pattern is that their state can be altered at will without affecting the prototype. During the run of the program new prototypes can be added, either from new classes or from variations on existing prototypes. Although there are other designs, the most flexible is to keep a prototype manager that maintains an indexed list of prototypes that can be cloned. The main players in the pattern are:
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IPrototype
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Defines the interface that says prototypes must be cloneable
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A class with cloning capabilities
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PrototypeManager
Maintains a list of clone types and their keys
Client
Adds prototypes to the list and requests clones
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5: Creational Patterns: Prototype, Factory Method, and Singleton
QUIZ
Match the Prototype Pattern Players with the Photo Archive Illustration
To test whether you understand the Prototype pattern, cover the lefthand column of the table below and see if you can identify its players among the items from the illustrative example (using the picture in Figure 3-3), as shown in the righthand column. Then check your answers against the lefthand column.
IPrototype Prototype PrototypeManager Client
Facility for archiving An archived photo set The Photo Library The user
C# Features Cloning and Serialization
MemberwiseClone is a method that is available on all objects. It copies the values of all
fields and any references, and returns a reference to this copy. However, it does not copy what the references in the object point to. That is, it performs what is known as a shallow copy. Many objects are simple, without references to other objects, and therefore shallow copies are adequate. To preserve the complete value of the object, including all its subobjects use a deep copy. It is not easy to write a general algorithm to follow every link in a structure and recreate the arrangement elsewhere. However, algorithms do exist, and in the .NET Framework they are encapsulated in a process called serialization. Objects are copied to a given destination and can be brought back again at will. The options for serialization destinations are several, including disks and the Internet, but the easiest one for serializing smallish objects is memory itself. Thus a deep copy consists of serializing and deserializing in one method. A generic method that will work for all types that are marked as serializable (such as lists and so on) is shown in Example 5-1. Note that there are two Serialization namespaces that must be imported. Marking a type as serializable is done with the [Serializable( )] attribute. Serialization is part of the .NET Framework, not the C# language. The following reference is to the .NET library online. cf. http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ system.runtime.serialization(VS.71).aspx
Prototype Pattern |
Serializing an object structure is possible only if all referenced objects are serializable. Avoid serializing an object that has a reference to a resource, such as an open file handler or a database connection.
Part of the Prototype pattern then relies on a namespace with two methods: Clone and DeepCopy. In fact, Clone is merely a synonym for MemberwiseClone and can be omitted. The namespace is shown in Example 5-1.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Runtime.Serialization; System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary;
namespace PrototypePattern { // Prototype Pattern Judith Bishop Nov 2007 // Serialization is used for the deep copy option // The type T must be marked with the attribute [Serializable( )] [Serializable( )] public abstract class IPrototype <T> { // Shallow copy public T Clone( ) { return (T) this.MemberwiseClone( ); } // Deep Copy public T DeepCopy( ) { MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream( ); BinaryFormatter formatter = new BinaryFormatter( ); formatter.Serialize(stream, this); stream.Seek(0, SeekOrigin.Begin); T copy = (T) formatter.Deserialize(stream); stream.Close( ); return copy; } } }
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