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7: Behavioral Patterns: Strategy, State, and Template Method
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When implementing the State pattern, we need to consider whether to create all the State objects at once and keep them, or create them as needed. The choice will depend upon the frequency with which states changes are made and the size of the states data. In the Frequent Flyer example, state changes will be infrequent, so creating the State objects as needed is the appropriate choice. In the next example, we ll consider a game, in which the states have only methods and are passed the context each time.
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Example: RPC Game
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Games inherently exhibit strategy. Our next example demonstrates how the State pattern can handle a very simple game called RPC (which stands for Run, Panic, Calm Down). In this single-person game, the player can be in one of four states: Resting Attacking Panicking Moving The context of the game consists of the state the player is in at present. Even slightly more complex games have other attributes, such as the number of points scored for and against. The Requests that can be put through (in terms of the State pattern) are the moves the player can make, which are the ones to which the states must react. These are specified in the State abstract class as follows:
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abstract public public public public public public } class State { virtual string virtual string virtual string virtual string virtual string virtual string Move(Context context) {return " ";} Attack(Context context) {return " ";} Stop(Context context) {return " ";} Run(Context context) {return " ";} Panic(Context context) {return " ";} CalmDown(Context context) {return " ";}
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The code for the RPC game example is presented in Example 7-4. Considering this code, we can see that each of the four states implements the six actions in completely different ways. They all return a string saying what happened, but some of them also change the state, as shown in lines 20 23. The RestingState s Move method is called with a given context. The response is to switch to MovingState for the same context and to return a message accordingly.
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1 2 3 4 5 using System; using System.Collections.Generic; namespace StatePattern {
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State Pattern |
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6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 // State Pattern D-J Miller and Judith Bishop Sept 2007 // Simple game where the context changes the state based on user input // Has four states, each with six operations abstract public public public public public public } class IState { virtual string virtual string virtual string virtual string virtual string virtual string
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Move(Context context) {return "";} Attack(Context context) {return "";} Stop(Context context) {return "";} Run(Context context) {return "";} Panic(Context context) {return "";} CalmDown(Context context) {return "";}
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// There are four States class RestingState : IState { public override string Move(Context context) { context.State = new MovingState( ); return "You start moving";} public override string Attack(Context context) { context.State = new AttackingState( ); return "You start attacking the darkness"; } public override string Stop(Context context) { return "You are already stopped!"; } public override string Run(Context context) { return "You cannot run unless you are moving"; } public override string Panic(Context context) { context.State = new PanickingState( ); return "You start Panicking and begin seeing things"; } public override string CalmDown(Context context) { return "You are already relaxed"; } } class AttackingState : IState { public override string Move(Context context) { return "You need to stop attacking first"; } public override string Attack(Context context) { return "You attack the darkness for " + (new Random( ).Next(20) + 1) + " damage"; } public override string Stop(Context context) { context.State = new RestingState( ); return "You are calm down and come to rest"; } public override string Run(Context context) { context.State = new MovingState( ); return "You Run away from the fray"; } public override string Panic(Context context) { context.State = new PanickingState( ); return "You start Panicking and begin seeing things"; } public override string CalmDown(Context context) { context.State = new RestingState( ); return "You fall down and sleep"; } } class PanickingState : IState {
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