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8: Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility and Command
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C# Feature Enumerated Types
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An enumerated type (enum) specifies a set of named constants. The value of an enum is written out as if it were a string. For example:
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enum Levels (Manager, Supervisor, Clerk} Levels me = Manager; Console.WriteLine((Levels) me);
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Enum variables can be used in switch statements, and variables of the type can make use of comparison operations. In addition, the two operators ++ and -- go forward and backward in the set, and an error will occur if there is no value to move to. Enums can also be used in a foreach statement, as follows:
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foreach (Levels level in Enum.GetValues(typeof(Levels))) {
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This formulation is rather clumsy, but it s the best C# has available at present. In addition, complicated methods are needed to detect whether a value is the first or last of a set.a Enum constants can have integer values associated with them. By default, these start at zero; however, casting back and forth to the integer type has to be done explicitly. cf. C# Language Specification Version 3.0, September 2007, Section 14
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See Marc Clifton s article The Enumerable Enumerator (November 2, 2006), available at http://www. codeproject.com/csharp/EnumerableEnumerator.asp.
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int [] amounts = {50,2000,1500,10000,175,4500}; foreach (int amount in amounts) { try { int which = choice.Next(structure[Levels.Clerk].Positions); Console.WriteLine(handlersAtLevel [Levels.Clerk][which].HandleRequest(amount)); AdjustChain( ); } catch (ChainException e) { Console.WriteLine("\nNo facility to handle a request of "+ e.Data["Limit"]+ "\nTry breaking it down into smaller requests\n"); } }
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Here, we use a random number generator to pick a clerk and then call the chosen handler at the clerk level. Inside the chosen handler, the limit is checked. If the handler cannot deal with the amount, it uses the same technique to pick a supervisor, generating a number between 0 and 2. Given all this, the output from the program is:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Trusty Bank opens with 1 Manager(s) who deal up to a limit of 9000 3 Supervisor(s) who deal up to a limit of 4000 10 Clerk(s) who deal up to a limit of 1000 Approached Clerk 4. Request for 50 handled by Clerk 4 Approached Clerk 0. Request for 2000 handled by Supervisor 1
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8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Approached Clerk 9. Request for 1500 handled by Supervisor 0 Approached Clerk 1. No facility to handle a request of 10000 Try breaking it down into smaller requests Approached Clerk 3. Request for 175 handled by Clerk 3 Approached Clerk 3. Request for 4500 handled by Manager 0 Approached Clerk 1. Request for 2000 handled by Supervisor 1
As this output shows, Clerks handled requests for $50 and $175 (lines 6 and 13), and three requests were sent up to Supervisors (not always the same one) on lines 7, 8, and 15. The Manager authorized one request (line 14) and rejected another (lines 9 11). When even the Manager cannot handle the request, the Handler interacts with the Client via an exception.
C# Feature Exception Properties
C# exceptions are objects that can be created, thrown, and caught. Exceptions are caught in try/catch blocks; different catch clauses can catch different exceptions. Exceptions can carry information from the throwing object to the catching one. The following properties are useful in user programming:
Message
A string property
Data
An IDictionary that can hold key/value pairs cf. C# Language Specification Version 3.0, September 2007, Section 16, and C# Class Library, the Exception Class
The full code for the Trusty Bank program is presented in Example 8-2.
using System; using System.Collections.Generic; class ChainPatternExample { // Chain of Responsibility Pattern Example Judith Bishop Sept 2007 // Sets up the Handlers as level-based structure // Makes use of a user-defined exception if the end of the chain is reached class Handler { Levels level; int id; public Handler (int id, Levels level) { this.id = id; this.level = level; }
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