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Notice that the name of the form bean, calendarForm, is also used as the value in the action mapping configuration. This is so the ActionMapping class knows which form to use when processing a user s input request. When a user clicks on a link or submits a form on a web page, the submitted parameters are bound to the properties in the ActionForm. For example, let s say the user submits a form with two parameters: month and year. Retrieving the parameters from the HttpServletRequest object looks like this:
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int month = Integer.parseInt(req.getParameter("month")); int year = Integer..parseInt(req.getParameter("year"));
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Performing this type of conversion for each input parameter is tedious and error-prone. Note that we didn t check for null values or NumberFormatExceptions. With our ActionForm, the conversion from String to int is performed for us:
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int month = calendarForm.getMonth(); int year = calendarForm.getYear();
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Converting the user s request to the ActionForm instance is performed for us. ActionForms can also be reused for different actions, thus reducing the number of classes needed in an application. Another advantage of ActionForms is that they can be validated using the Jakarta Commons Validator. The Commons Validator package provides a mechanism that validates user input and returns error messages if validation fails. Although the Commons Validator can be extremely difficult to learn, it s well worth the flexibility and power that it can provide. The remaining parameters to the execute( ) method are the standard and HttpServletResponse objects from the Servlet API. They are passed in case the Action class needs to do custom processing, such as streaming a PDF to the user instead of sending him or her to another view.
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HttpServletRequest
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Web frameworks: WebWork, Struts, and Tapestry
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Assuming the user is to be sent to a view or another Action class, the ActionForward class represents the resource the user will be sent to. Since Struts uses a single controller servlet to dispatch requests to the appropriate Action classes, we need to configure the servlet to process all incoming requests with a given extension. The standard extension is *.do, and is reflected in the web.xml configuration shown in listing 8.16. Listing 8.16 web.xml Struts configuration
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<web-app> <servlet> <servlet-name>action</servlet-name> Defines the <servlet-class> servlet class org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet </servlet-class> Defines the <init-param> location of the <param-name>config</param-name> configuration file <param-value>/WEB-INF/struts-config.xml</param-value> </init-param> <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>action</servlet-name> <url-pattern>*.do</url-pattern> Maps the servlet to the URL </servlet-mapping> </web-app>
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This web.xml will force all URLs ending in *.do to pass through the Struts controller servlet so that your Action classes can process the requests. Next, we ll look at creating our Action class for the calendar example.
8.5.2 Building Struts Actions
The Action class is the basic unit of work in a Struts application. For the example application, you have one Action class, StrutsCalendarAction. It is responsible for placing Event objects for the current month
Struts
and year into the HttpServletRequest scope for display to the user. The code for this Action class is displayed in listing 8.17. Listing 8.17 StrutsCalendarAction class
package com.manning.hq.ch08.struts; import java.io.IOException; import java.util.List; import javax.servlet.ServletException; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; import import import import org.apache.struts.action.Action; org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm; org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward; org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping;
public class StrutsCalendarAction extends Action { public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form, HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) throws ServletException, IOException { StrutsCalendarForm calendarForm = (StrutsCalendarForm) form; EventServiceLocatorDao dao = new EventServiceLocatorDao(); int month = calendarForm.getMonth(); int year = calendarForm.getYear(); Casts the ActionForm to the appropriate subclass Creates the EventServiceLocatorDao
Creates a new StrutsCalendarModel calendar = StrutsCalendarModel new StrutsCalendarModel(month, year);
List events = dao.findEventsFor(month, year); calendar.setEvents(events); Sets the events in the model req.setAttribute("calendar", calendar); Sets the model in the request scope return mapping.findForward("success"); Forwards the user to the forward defined in the action mapping
Retrieves a list of events for a given month and year
Web frameworks: WebWork, Struts, and Tapestry
The StrutsCalendarAction class is pretty simple. Once you get the request parameters, you use them to query the database and put the search results in your StrutsCalendarModel. In the previous section, you created a subclass of the CalendarModel to simplify your presentation logic.
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