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By itself, Hibernate doesn t provide any mechanism to generate the mapping files. Instead, in this chapter we are going to use another open source tool, XDoclet. As a generic code-generation tool, XDoclet can be used to generate just about any type of file, including Hibernate mapping files. XDoclet uses a variation of the standard JavaDoc tool to read Java source files and write out new files. When you insert special JavaDoc tags into the .java source files, XDoclet can read those tags and generate the mapping file using that information. As a bonus, by adding more comments to your Java file, you help document the Java classes as well. This gives follow-on developers additional information about the persistent relationships of your object model.
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This chapter is all about installing, configuring, and using XDoclet to generate your mapping files. You will learn to
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Download and install XDoclet. Configure it using Ant so that it reads your persistent classes and generates the mapping files for you. Mark up basic persistent Java files, thus allowing XDoclet to read them. Create mappings for several complex Hibernate relationships, such as collections and components, using XDoclet.
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Building on previous chapters, you won t be learning any new Hibernate mappings, but you will learn how to write them differently. So we assume that you understand how to do the following:
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Write basic persistent class mappings. Create mappings for common associations. Express collections and components in a mapping file.
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9.1 Essential XDoclet
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XDoclet is an open source project with an Apache-style license, hosted at sourceforge.net. By using it in conjunction with Hibernate, you can avoid having to manually write mapping files. For example, having written your Event.java, you would normally then have to write an Event.hbm.xml file to define which Event fields are persistent and how they map to database columns. Instead, if you add some special comments to the Event.java file, XDoclet will write your Event.hbm.xml file for you. XDoclet is based on the JavaDoc tool, which is how all Java API documentation is generated. JavaDoc inspects the Java source files, and then generates HTML documents that list the methods and fields of the class, along with developer comments about them. It allows developers to keep documentation close to the code. XDoclet is used during the build step, so it goes hand in hand with Ant. Adding XDoclet to the build process allows you to compile your Java files and generate the mapping files all in a single step. This section will cover the basics of how JavaDoc works and how you can add XDoclet tags to your persistent classes. It will also explain how to install XDoclet and integrate it into your Ant build process.
9.1.1 JavaDoc basics
As mentioned earlier, XDoclet works by parsing Java source files, using a modified version of JavaDoc. In case you aren t familiar with JavaDoc, it is a tool that comes with the basic JDK. It reads source files, looking for specially formatted comments on classes and methods. It then generates HTML documents that help developers understand the API. Even if a developer doesn t include comments, JavaDoc will still give a detailed overview of the available public methods and fields. Here s a sample JavaDoc:
Essential XDoclet
package com.manning.hq.ch09; /** Special ** multiline comment denotes this as a JavaDoc comment * A persistent Hibernate object. * * @author Patrick Peak This JavaDoc tag marks the author * @author Nick Heudecker */ public class Event implements Serializable { }
Notice that this code contains a JavaDoc comment immediately before the class declaration. In addition, it uses two *s instead of the typical single *. This marks the comment as special for JavaDocs. A simple comment follows that explains a bit about the class. Next are two @author tags, which provide additional information to JavaDoc. In this case, JavaDoc knows that there are two authors who worked on this class and can generate the API documentation accordingly. JavaDoc knows how to read a basic set of tags, including the @author tag, as well as other class tags, such as @deprecated, @see, and @version. Methodand field-specific tags are also available, such as @param, @throws, and @return.
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