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CHAPTER 13 CASE STUDY: USING PHP FOR AN XML APPLICATION
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If users change the URL to http://localhost/weather/index.php continent=7643, one of two things can happen. Either the value 7643 refers to a continent in the database, or the id is invalid. In the first case, the application can display the subnavigation for that continent, but in the second case, it needs to display an error message. The application uses the following XML document structure for this scenario: < xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" > <entries> <current>Error</current> <error>You appear to have selected an invalid continent</error> </entries> Instead of an <items> element, the document includes Error as the value of the <current> element. It also includes an <error> element with an error message that displays to the user. Scenario 3: Dealing with Subnavigation Items The most likely scenario is that the application displays subnavigation items. The structure of this type of XML document is similar to that shown in scenario 1. The difference is that the <items> element contains multiple <entry> elements: < xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" > <entries> <current type="area" id="8">WA</current> <items> <linksto>city</linksto> <entry id="1">Albany</entry> <entry id="2">Bunbury</entry> <entry id="3">Geraldton</entry> <entry id="4">Perth</entry> </items> </entries> Each <entry> element has an id that corresponds to the id field in the database. It also contains the name of the navigation item in this case, the name of the city. Now let s see how to build the XML document to cope with these different scenarios. Building the XML Document The mk_navxml.php document starts by including weather.php: < php include_once('weather.php'); The page uses a variable called $xml to build the XML document. It starts by creating a new DomDocument: $xml = new DomDocument('1.0', 'UTF-8'); $xml->xmlStandalone = false;
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CHAPTER 13 CASE STUDY: USING PHP FOR AN XML APPLICATION
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The code then sets the document element using the createElement() and appendChild() methods: $root = $xml->createElement('entries'); $root = $xml->appendChild($root); The next code block tests which variable has been set: $area, $country, or $continent. It does this in an if/else statement that starts with the lowest navigation level, area: if (isset($area)) { If the $city variable is set, the code in standard.php will branch to include the mk_weather.php script instead. The code starts by retrieving the current area information from the database: $sql = 'SELECT * from area WHERE areaID=' . $area; $tres = mysql_query($sql) or die(mysql_error()); It also tests that the area id is valid: if (mysql_num_rows($tres) == 0) { $current = $xml->createElement('current', 'Error'); $current = $root->appendChild($current); $error = $xml->createElement('error', 'You appear to have selected an invalid area'); $error = $root->appendChild($error); } If the query returns no rows, the application knows that the area id is invalid and the page can generate an <error> element. If the query returns rows, the area name is stored in a variable for later use: else { $row = mysql_fetch_array($tres); $area_name = $row['area']; Once the page determines the area, it then needs to select the subnavigation city items: $sql = 'SELECT * FROM city WHERE cityAreaID =' . $area . ' ORDER BY city'; $cres = mysql_query($sql) or die(mysql_error()); The code can then use DOM methods to create the <current> element and set the attributes: $current = $xml->createElement('current', $area_name); $current->setAttribute('type', 'area'); $current->setAttribute('id', $area); $root->appendChild($current); It also creates the <items> and <linksto> elements: $items = $xml->createElement('items'); $root->appendChild($items); $linksto = $xml->createElement('linksto', 'city'); $items->appendChild($linksto);
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CHAPTER 13 CASE STUDY: USING PHP FOR AN XML APPLICATION
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Finally, it loops through the results and creates a set of <entry> elements. Obviously, if there are no cities, it doesn t create any elements: while ($crow = mysql_fetch_array($cres)) { $entry = $xml->createElement('entry', $crow['city']); $entry->setAttribute('id', $crow['cityID']); $items->appendChild($entry); } Note that I ve left out the closing brackets to simplify the code. The code repeats this process for the country. This time, it returns the areas with the country as <entry> elements instead of the cities: else if (isset($country)) { $sql = 'SELECT * from country WHERE countryID =' . $country; $tres = mysql_query($sql) or die(mysql_error()); if (mysql_num_rows($tres) == 0) { $current = $xml->createElement('current', 'Error'); $current = $root->appendChild($current); $error = $xml->createElement('error', 'You appear to have selected an invalid country'); $error = $root->appendChild($error); } else { $trow = mysql_fetch_array($tres); $country_name = $trow['country']; $sql = 'SELECT * FROM area WHERE areaCountryID =' . $country . ' ORDER BY area'; $cres = mysql_query($sql) or die(mysql_error()); $current = $xml->createElement('current', $country_name); $current->setAttribute('type', 'country'); $current->setAttribute('id', $country); $root->appendChild($current); $items = $xml->createElement('items'); $root->appendChild($items); $linksto = $xml->createElement('linksto', 'area'); $items->appendChild($linksto); while ($crow = mysql_fetch_array($cres)) { $entry = $xml->createElement('entry', $crow['area']); $entry->setAttribute('id', $crow['areaID']); $items->appendChild($entry); } } }
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