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2-D and Screen Coordinate Systems
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Although a 2-D game uses many math concepts, in this section we ll explore only the most basic ones. However, if you understand the ideas expressed in this chapter, you ll be able to build upon this knowledge when creating your 2-D games, and easily learn other related concepts. You ll create a simple XNA program to present the concepts of drawing sprites, moving them onscreen, and colliding sprites with one another and the game window border. However, before you start coding, let s talk about 2-D coordinate systems and screen coordinates.
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CHAPTER 2 s 2-D GRAPHICS, AUDIO, AND INPUT BASICS
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You probably heard about 2-D coordinate systems in school, when creating simple graphics in geometry. Just to remind you, Figure 2-1 represents a triangle, expressed by each of its vertices, in a 2-D coordinate system. Analyze the vertices coordinates to make sure you understand the concept.
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Figure 2-1. A triangle in a 2-D coordinate system
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The main difference between the coordinate system presented in Figure 2-1 and the coordinates used when creating a 2-D game called screen coordinates is that the axis origin is not in the bottom left, but in the top left position, as depicted in Figure 2-2. Compare the two figures to understand how this difference impacts the vertices definition: the higher a vertex appears onscreen, the lower its Y coordinate.
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Figure 2-2. The same triangle, in screen coordinates
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CHAPTER 2 s 2-D GRAPHICS, AUDIO, AND INPUT BASICS
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Another detail is that the screen coordinates are directly related to the screen resolution. So, if you configure your monitor to an 800 ! 600 resolution, that means that the X axis will have 800 pixels (each pixel is an independent point onscreen) and the Y axis will have 600 pixels, as suggested in Figure 2-2.
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Drawing a Sprite Using XNA
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Let s now create a simple example in XNA to display a sprite in a given position on the screen. Start by creating a new project, or opening the empty project you created in the previous chapter. To group the sprite image and some associated properties (such as position, size, and velocity), you ll create a simple class, which will be extended later in this chapter when we explore new concepts. The following code listing presents a simple sprite class, including the following properties: texture: Stores the sprite image using XNA s Texture2D class. This class has many properties and methods to help deal with textures; you ll see some of them in s 3 and 4. The texture is stored in this class as a 2-D grid of texels. Similar to pixels, which are the smallest unit that can be drawn on the screen, texels are the smallest unit that can be stored by the graphics board, and include color and transparency values. size: Stores the sprite s size using XNA s Vector2 class. This class has two properties, X and Y, which are used to store the image width and height. position: Stores the position of the sprite using XNA s Vector2 class. The X and Y properties of the class store the screen coordinates for the sprite.
class clsSprite { public Texture2D texture; public Vector2 position; public Vector2 size;
// // //
sprite texture sprite position onscreen sprite size in pixels
public clsSprite (Texture2D newTexture, Vector2 newPosition, Vector2 newSize) { texture = newTexture; position = newPosition; size = newSize; } }
CHAPTER 2 s 2-D GRAPHICS, AUDIO, AND INPUT BASICS
For now, this class only stores the sprite properties, and does not include any method. Because your goal here is to keep the code simple, you won t create properties using the get/set structure, although it s advisable to do so when creating properties in your games. The next code sample presents an example of how to use such a structure, in case you want to improve the code by yourself.
int _gameLevel; // Stores the current game level public static int GameLevel { get { return _gameLevel; } set { _gameLevel = value; } }
The first step in creating a sprite is to include a new image in your game, so you can use it through the Content Pipeline. Go to the XNA Creator s Club site (http://creators. xna.com) and save the XNA thumbnail image that appears on the site home page (or download the image directly from http://creators.xna.com/themes/default/images/ common/xna_thumbnail.png). Once you have this image in your hard drive, include it in your project by pressing the left mouse button over the Solution Explorer window, as shown in Figure 2-3, selecting Add Existing Item, and choosing the image you just downloaded.
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