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The Enemy class is the one that has the enemy NPC s logic and attributes. Figure 12-10 exhibits a spider model used as an enemy in the game.
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CHAPTER 12 s CREATING A THIRD-PERSON SHOOTER GAME
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Figure 12-10. An alien spider model. Courtesy of Psionic (http://www.psionic3d.co.uk).
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Differently from the player, the enemy is computer controlled, so you need to implement its AI. The enemy s AI is simple, having only four different states: Wandering, Chasing Player, Attacking Player, and Dead. Figure 12-11 shows the diagram of the AI built for the enemies.
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Figure 12-11. Enemy AI diagram
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CHAPTER 12 s CREATING A THIRD-PERSON SHOOTER GAME
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In the AI diagram in Figure 12-11, each circle represents a different enemy state, and the arrows represent the actions that make an enemy change its state. The enemy s AI starts in the Wandering state. In this state, the enemy keeps moving around the map randomly looking for the player. Whenever the enemy sees the player or gets shot by the player, he changes his state to Chasing Player. In the Chasing Player state, the enemy moves closer to the player until he is near enough to attack the player. When that happens, the enemy state is altered to Attacking Player. In this state, the enemy attacks the player successively until the player dies or the player runs. If the player tries to run from the enemy, the enemy s state is changed back to Chasing Player. Notice that once the enemy starts to chase the player, the enemy stays in a cycle between the states Chasing Player and Attacking Player, not returning to the Wandering state. Each enemy has an attribute to store his current state, among an enumeration of possible states.
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// Possible enemy states public enum EnemyState { Wander = 0, ChasePlayer, AttackPlayer, Dead } // Current enemy state (default = Wander) EnemyState state;
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For each one of the possible enemy states you ll declare some attributes and create a method to execute this state. To control the transitions between the enemy states, you ll overwrite the Update method of its base class.
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Updating the Enemy
The enemy s Update method manages the transition between the enemy states. For every arrow in the AI state diagram, shown in Figure 12-11, there must be a condition in the Update method. In the beginning of the Update method you calculate the enemy s chaseVector, which contains the direction from the enemy s position to the player s position. You use the length of this vector to check the distance between the enemy and the player. Then, for
CHAPTER 12 s CREATING A THIRD-PERSON SHOOTER GAME
each player s state you check if you can execute this state or need to change it to a new state. Notice that all enemies have a reference to the Player class, which is used to obtain the player s current position. Following is the Update method s code:
public override void Update(GameTime time) { // Calculate chase vector every time chaseVector = player.Transformation.Translate Transformation.Translate; float distanceToPlayer = chaseVector.Length(); switch (state) { case EnemyState.Wander: // Enemy perceives the player Change state if (isHited || distanceToPlayer < perceptionDistance) state = EnemyState.ChasePlayer; else Wander(time); break; case EnemyState.ChasePlayer: // Enemy is near enough to attack Change state if (distanceToPlayer <= attackDistance) { state = EnemyState.AttackPlayer; nextActionTime = 0; } else ChasePlayer(time); break; case EnemyState.AttackPlayer: // Player flees Change state if (distanceToPlayer > attackDistance * 2.0f) state = EnemyState.ChasePlayer; else AttackPlayer(time); break;
CHAPTER 12 s CREATING A THIRD-PERSON SHOOTER GAME
default: break; } base.Update(time); }
Wandering
In the Wandering state, the enemy walks randomly through the map, without a specific goal. To execute this action, you need to generate random positions over the map within a radius from the enemy s actual position and make the enemy move to these positions. Following are the attributes of the Enemy class used by the Wandering state:
static int WANDER_MAX_MOVES = 3; static int WANDER_DISTANCE = 70; static float WANDER_DELAY_SECONDS = 4.0f; static float MOVE_CONSTANT = 35.0f; static float ROTATE_CONSTANT = 100.0f; // Wander int wanderMovesCount; Vector3 wanderStartPosition; Vector3 wanderPosition;
The WANDER_MAX_MOVES variable defines the number of random movements that the enemy makes until he returns to his initial position, and the wanderMovesCount variable stores the number of movements that the unit has already made. You can use these variables to restrict the distance that the enemy could reach from his initial position, forcing him to return to his start position after a fixed number of random movements. Besides that, the WANDER_DELAY_SECONDS variable stores the delay time between each movement of the unit. The WANDER_DISTANCE variable stores the minimum distance that the unit walks in each movement, and the variables wanderStartPosition and wanderPosition store, respectively, the enemy s initial position and destination while in the Wandering state. Finally, MOVE_CONSTANT and ROTATE_CONSTANT store a constant value used to move and rotate the enemy. To execute the enemy s Wandering state you ll create the Wander method. In the Wander method, you first check if the enemy has already reached his destination position, which is stored in the wanderPosition attribute. To do that, you create a vector from the enemy s position to his destination and use the length of this vector to check the distance
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