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Figure 7-17. The first view of a 3-D model (cube)
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If you remember the BasicEffect class you used in the previous section, you re right: with BasicEffect you can apply transformations to the object (through the World property), set the Projection and the View matrices (which are a must for every effect), and turn on a default light source with little effort, as you saw when we talked about effects earlier in this chapter. You can use the same projection and camera view matrices you used for cls3Daxis; a rotation of 45 degrees in both the X and Y axes will turn the cube so you can see three of its faces. To use the effect to render the 3-D object, you must remember that a model is composed of many meshes, so you need to loop through all the meshes to apply the effect to all. Besides that, a mesh has a collection of effects, so it can render different parts of the mesh with different effects a useful thing for complex meshes. Because you might have many effects for a single mesh, you need to have a second loop, running through all effects of each mesh, to be certain you ll apply the same effect in all mesh parts. In a simple model such as your cube, you have only one mesh, and only one effect on this mesh. However, creating generic code allows you to use the same program for more complex models.
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The final code with the effect creation and use follows. You must place it in the LoadContent method:
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// Calculate the aspect ratio for the model float aspectRatio = (float)graphics.GraphicsDevice.Viewport.Width / graphics.GraphicsDevice.Viewport.Height; // Configure basic lighting and do a simple rotation for the model // (so it can be seen onscreen) foreach (ModelMesh mesh in myModel.Meshes) foreach (BasicEffect effect in mesh.Effects) { // Rotate and make the model a little smaller (50%) effect.World = Matrix.CreateScale(0.5f) * Matrix.CreateRotationX(MathHelper.ToRadians(45.0f)) * Matrix.CreateRotationY(MathHelper.ToRadians(45.0f)); // Set the projection matrix for the model effect.Projection = Matrix.CreatePerspectiveFieldOfView( MathHelper.ToRadians(45.0f), aspectRatio, 1.0f, 10.0f); effect.View = Matrix.CreateLookAt(new Vector3(0.0f, 0.0f, 3.0f), Vector3.Zero, Vector3.Up); effect.EnableDefaultLighting(); }
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Figure 7-18 presents the result of running the program with the newly created effect.
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s Note You don t have to bother to load textures if your model uses them: model files already include information about the textures they use. Because this information includes the path where the texture files should be, you only need to know this path and then copy the texture files to the corresponding path. You can find out the texture paths by examining the model files (in a text editor, for example), or by including the model in the project and compiling it. XNA Game Studio presents the Content Pipeline path errors stating where the model looked for the textures.
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Figure 7-18. The rotated, scaled, and lightened cube
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Summary
In this chapter you learned the basics of 3-D graphics programming. Although XNA provides you with many premade classes and methods that lower the program s complexity, there are still a lot of concepts to understand. Be sure you understand the following concepts before you go on to the next chapter: What vertices are and what type of information can be used when defining them What a vertex buffer is and how to use it Why matrices are important, and how to use them to perform transformations in 3-D objects What the projection matrix is, which types of projections XNA supports, and how to use them What the view matrix is and how you create it in XNA
CHAPTER 7 s 3-D GAME PROGRAMMING BASICS
What the world matrix is, and how to use it to perform operations in all 3-D scenes What models and meshes are, and how to load and render them in XNA In the next chapter you ll create a complete 3-D game, so you ll be able to exercise and explore these concepts.
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