create barcode c#.net Some HLSL Functions Function in Font

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Table 8-4. Some HLSL Functions Function
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dot cross lerp mul normalize pow reflect
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Returns the dot product of two vectors Returns the cross product of two floating-point, 3-D vectors Performs a linear interpolation between two values Performs matrix multiplication between X and Y Normalizes the specified floating-point vector Returns X to the power of Y Returns the reflection vector, given the entering ray direction and the surface normal
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CHAPTER 8 s RENDERING PIPELINE, SHADERS, AND EFFECTS
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Function
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Returns a refraction vector using an entering ray direction, a surface normal, and a refraction index Clamps the specified value within the range of 0 to 1 Performs a 2-D texture lookup Performs a 3-D volume texture lookup
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Creating a Simple Shader
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In this section you ll create your first shader using HLSL. First, you should declare the uniform and varying variables of the shader:
// Matrix received from the application - Uniform // (World * View * Projection) float4x4 matWVP : WorldViewProjection; // Struct used for the input vertex - Varying struct vertexInput { float4 position : POSITION0; }; // Struct used to pass the VS output to the PS input - Varying struct vertexOutput { float4 hposition : POSITION; float3 color : COLOR0; };
In the previous code, you used the vertexInput struct to pass data from the application to the vertex shader, and you used the vertexOutput struct to pass data from the vertex shader to the pixel shader. The vertexInput struct has a unique attribute: the vertex position. The vertexOutput struct has two attributes, which are the vertex s final position and color. So, the vertex shader function receives the vertex position and must output its final position and color. Notice that the vertex position output by the vertex shader is not accessible by the pixel shader. Next, declare the function used as the vertex shader s entry point:
// Vertex shader code pixelInput SimpleVS(vertexInput IN) {
CHAPTER 8 s RENDERING PIPELINE, SHADERS, AND EFFECTS
pixelInput OUT; // Transform the vertex position OUT.hposition = mul(IN.position, matWVP); OUT.color = float3(1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); return OUT; }
In the SimpleVS function, you calculate the output vertex position by transforming (multiplying) it by the matWVP matrix (which is the combination of the world, view, and projection matrix). The output vertex color is set as yellow, RGB (1, 1, 0). Finally, you should declare the function used as the pixel shader s entry point:
// Pixel shader code float4 SimplePS(pixelInput IN) : COLOR0 { return float4(IN.color.rgb, 1.0f); }
The pixel shader created just returns the color received from the vertex processing stage. This color will be used as the final pixel color.
Effects
Effects are entities that can store different shaders, techniques, and configurations for the fixed stages of the rendering pipeline. Besides the shaders, an effect must have one or more techniques. A technique is used to specify how the shaders, inside the effect, should be compiled and linked for the rendering. For example, because an effect could have many vertex and pixel shaders, each technique could define a different combination (linkage) of vertex and pixel shaders. Techniques can also have more than one pass, where the entire rendering process is repeated for each pass. Furthermore, inside a technique it is possible to configure some parameters of the rasterization and output merger stages. The use of effects facilitates the shaders programming, making it possible to reuse shader code in different techniques, and also create different techniques targeting lowend and high-end GPUs. Following is the code for a technique:
technique basicShader { pass p0 { VertexShader = compile vs_2_0 SimpleVS();
CHAPTER 8 s RENDERING PIPELINE, SHADERS, AND EFFECTS
PixelShader = compile ps_2_0 SimplePS(); } }
The basicShader technique has just one pass, called p0. Inside each pass you define which function will be used as the vertex shader and pixel shader entry point. In this case you re using the SimpleVS function as the vertex shader entry point and the SimplePS function as the pixel shader entry point. You also need to define which shader model should be used to compile the shaders. In this case you re using the shader model 2.0. The shader models have evolved since DirectX 8.1, and XNA supports shader models up to 3.0. Each shader model has different features and allows the creation of shaders with a different number of instructions. For example, the dynamic flow control operations (if, while, and so on) on the vertex shader and pixel shader are only available in the shader model version 3.0 or higher. Table 8-5 presents the number of instruction slots available on each shader model. Notice that each HLSL function can use one or more instruction slots, because they are not direct-mapped to the GPU assembly instructions.
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