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Before we detail how to work with skeletal animation in XNA, it s important that you understand how the skeleton model is constructed and how its bones are represented and stored. There are two different ways to store the model s skeleton. The first one uses bones and the second uses joints. For example, 3ds Max represents a skeleton using its bones, while Maya represents a skeleton using its joints. However, when the model is exported to an XNA-compatible format (X or FBX format) there is no difference between them and the skeleton is represented by its bones. In this chapter, you ll use bones to represent and store the skeleton, where each bone has an initial position and orientation, and the size of each bone is defined as the distance between its position and the position of a child bone. This bone representation creates the necessity of having an end bone (of zero size) to define the end of the skeleton. The bone s orientation and position define its configuration. Figure 11-3 illustrates a skeleton s arm representation using bones. Notice that it is necessary to have an End Bone after the Hand Bone to define the hand bone s size and the end of the skeleton s arm. The position and orientation of each bone is related to its ancestor. For example, the hand s orientation and position are defined according to the orientation and position defined by the forearm, which has its orientation and position defined by the upper arm, repeating the same process until the root bone is reached. With this concept, you can see that modifying any bone affects all the descendants of this bone. If the left shoulder bone was moved, all its descendants would be moved too. To store the skeleton, you need to store the configuration (orientation and position) of every bone and the hierarchy of these bones inside the skeleton. The hierarchy is needed to calculate the absolute configuration of a bone at any given time. You can store the configuration of a bone as a matrix, and the skeleton hierarchy as a list with references to the ancestor of each bone.
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CHAPTER 11 s SKELETAL ANIMATION
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Figure 11-3. Arm bones of a skeleton. The hierarchy begins in the Root Bone and the end is defined by the End Bone, where each bone is a descendent of the previous bone. All the bones begin at the position shown by a square, and they end at the next bone s starting point (the following square).
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XNA has a well-defined Content Pipeline, which is separated in different layers and provides importers, processors, compilers (content writers), and readers (content readers) for the game assets. Because XNA s Content Pipeline does not have full support for models with skeletal animation, you need to extend the Content Pipeline, adding support for skeletal animation. Notice that the Content Pipeline partially supports skeletal animation, because it can import the skeletal animation data from the X and FBX files, but it doesn t process all the skeletal animation data that is imported. Figure 11-4 shows a simplified diagram of the Content Pipeline classes that are used to import, process, compile, and read model files. First, the models are imported by their respective content importer, where each content importer converts the input model s data to an XNA document object model (DOM) format. In this way, after the models have been imported, they are all in the same format and can be processed by their respective content processor, the ModelProcessor. The output of the model importers is a root NodeContent object, which describe a graphics type that has its own coordinate system and can have children. Two classes extend the NodeContent class: MeshContent and BoneContent. So, the root NodeContent object output from a model importer might have some NodeContent, MeshContent, and BoneContent children.
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