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When you execute a command in a terminal window (which was and for many people still is an everyday task), output is usually produced in the form of a text stream. So the same techniques that apply to text files can be also used on this output, with a simple operation called piping. Piping is the process of sending the output of a command as the input for another command, usually a textmanipulation tool. That output is then manipulated as if it were a file. Powerful! We ll illustrate this with an example using grep. grep is a tool that takes text as its input, searches and tries to match a regular expression or piece of text, and prints the lines that contain that regular
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CHAPTER 12 WORKING WITH TEXT FILES
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expression or text. If you issue the following command in a terminal window (which you can open through Applications Accessories Terminal): grep Linux operatingsystems.txt grep will look for the text Linux in the file operatingsystems.txt and print only the lines that contain that text. So grep works with text files to filter lines in a file based on criteria you set. But what if you want to do the same thing not to a text file, but to the output of a command You use piping, which is expressed by the character |. It instructs a command to send its output to another command (and to the second command to take that as its input). For example, if you want to find a particular process say, the process gedit (processes are listed with the ps command) you d type the following at the command line: ps -d | grep gedit This command will show you information about the gedit process (if it is running). Another way of attaining a similar end is by means of redirecting expressed with the character >. Redirecting means sending the output of a command to a text file. So the preceding task could be fulfilled by executing two commands: one for listing process information (and redirecting its output) and the other to display only the lines that pertain to a certain process: ps -d > processes.txt grep gedit processes.txt
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STANDARD INPUT AND OUTPUT
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If you ve read any of the Ubuntu man pages, you might have seen references to standard input and standard output. Like many things in Linux, this sounds complicated, but is merely a long-winded way of referring to something that is relatively simple (although the terms have specific meanings to programmers). Standard input is simply the device that programs running under Ubuntu normally take input from. In other words, on the majority of desktop PCs, when you re using the command-line shell, standard input refers to the keyboard. However, it s important to note that it could also refer to the mouse or any other device on your system capable of providing input; even some software can take the role of providing standard input. Standard output is similar. It refers to the device to which output from a command is usually sent from software. In the majority of cases at the command line, this refers to the monitor screen, although it could be any kind of output device, such as your PC s sound card and speakers. The man page for the cat command says that it will concatenate files and print on the standard output. In other words, for the majority of desktop Ubuntu installations, it will combine (concatenate) any number of files together and print the results on the screen. If you specify just one file, it will display that single file on your screen. In addition to hardware devices, input can also come from a file containing commands, and output can also be sent to a file instead of the screen, or even sent directly to another command. This is just one reason why the command-line shell is so flexible and powerful.
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