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Another useful command for dealing with files is cp, which copies files. You can use the cp command in the following way: cp myfile /home/ubuntu/ This will copy the file to the location specified. In this example, the filename and location are technically known as arguments. Anything that you specify a command should work with is referred to as an argument, and this can often be important when you try to figure out what the man pages are saying about how a command works. One important command-line option for cp is -r. This stands for recursive and tells BASH that you want to copy a directory and its contents (as well as any directories within this directory). Most commands that deal with files have a recursive option.
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Note Only a handful of BASH commands default to recursive copying. Even though it s extremely common to copy folders, you still need to specify the -r command option most of the time.
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One curious trick is that you can copy a file from one place to another but, by specifying a filename in the destination part of the command, change its name. Here s an example: cp myfile /home/ubuntu/myfile2 This will copy myfile to /home/ubuntu, but rename it as myfile2. Be careful not to add a final slash to the command when you do this. In the example here, doing so would cause BASH to think that myfile2 is a directory. This way of copying files is a handy way of duplicating files. By not specifying a new location in the destination part of the command, but still specifying a different filename, you effectively duplicate the file within the same directory: cp myfile myfile2 This will result in two identical files: one called myfile and one called myfile2.
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The mv command is similar to cp, except that rather than copying the file, the old one is effectively removed. You can move files from one directory to another, for example, like this: mv myfile /home/ubuntu/ You can also use the mv command to quickly rename files: mv myfile myfile2 The mv command can be used to move a directory in the same way as with files. However, there s no need to use a command option to specify recursivity, as with other commands. For instance, to move the directory /daffodil into the directory /flowers, you could type the following (assuming both directories are in the one you re currently browsing): mv daffodil/ flowers/ Note the use of the slash after each directory. To rename directories, simply leave off the slashes. To rename the directory /daffodil to /hyacinth, for example, you could type the following: mv daffodil hyacinth
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Note Getting technical for a moment, moving a file in Linux isn t the same as in Windows, where a file is copied and then the original deleted. Under Ubuntu, the file s absolute path is rewritten, causing it to simply appear in a different place in the file structure. However, the end result is the same.
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But how do you get rid of files Again, this is relatively easy, but first a word of caution: the shell doesn t operate any kind of Recycle Bin. After a file is deleted, it s gone forever. (There are utilities you can use to recover files, but these are specialized tools and aren t to be relied on for everyday use.) Removing a file is achieved by typing something like this: rm myfile It s as simple as that. In some instances, you ll be asked to confirm the deletion after you issue the command. If you want to delete a file without being asked to confirm it, type the following: rm -f myfile The f command option stands for force (that is, force the deletion). If you try to use the rm command to remove a directory, you ll see an error message. This is because the command needs an additional option: rm -rf mydirectory As noted earlier, the r stands for recursive and indicates that any folder specified afterward should be deleted, in addition to any files it contains.
Tip You might have used wildcards within Windows and DOS. They can be used within Ubuntu, too. For example, the asterisk (*) can be used to mean any file. So, you can type rm -f * to delete all files within a directory, or type rm -f myfile* to delete all files that start with the word myfile. But remember to be careful with the rm command. Keep in mind that you cannot salvage files easily if you accidentally delete them!
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