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The third mode you should be aware of is Command-Line mode (note that, irritatingly, this is not the same as the Command mode). As its name suggests, this is the mode in which you can enter commands to save and load files, as well as perform other fundamental tasks to control vi or to quit the program. You can enter Command-Line mode by typing a colon (:), although if you re in Insert mode, you ll first need to leave it by pressing the Esc key. You can identify when vi is in this mode because the cursor will be at the bottom of the screen next to a colon symbol, as shown in Figure 15-4. To quit Command-Line mode, press the Esc key. You ll be returned to Command mode. Note that you ll automatically leave Command-Line mode after each command you issue has completed.
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Figure 15-4. Use vi s Command-Line mode to issue commands. For a list of basic Command-Line mode commands, see Table 15-2.
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Table 15-2. Some vi Command-Line Mode Commands
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:w :w! :q :q! :s/word/replacement/ :help
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Save the file Save the file and ignore errors such as an existing file with the same filename Quit vi Quit vi and ignore errors such as an unsaved file Search from the cursor downwards and replace any instances of the word with the replacement 1 View help documentation
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1 The search tool is very powerful and uses a number of command options for additional flexibility. Read the
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vi help file to learn more.
Using vi to Edit a File
As an example, let s use vi to edit the OpenOffice.org README file. You don t want to actually alter this file, so start by making a copy of it in your home directory: cp /usr/lib/openoffice2/README ~ This will copy the file README01 to your /home directory, which you indicate using the ~ symbol.
CHAPTER 15 WORKING WITH TEXT FILES
After this, you need to change the file s permissions, because, by default, this file is readonly for all users (r--r--r--). Use the following command to change the permissions: chmod +w README Then fire up vi with the file, like this: vi README
Note Windows makes a lot of use of file extensions in order to recognize files and therefore know what program to use to run them. By default, a file with a .doc extension tells Windows that it should use Microsoft Word to open the file, for example. Linux uses a different system based on the first few bytes of each file. Because of this, file extensions are used within Linux simply to let the users know what type of file they re dealing with. Often, they re not used at all. If a file is called README, you can be fairly certain that it s a text file, for example.
Once the file is opened, you ll find yourself automatically in Command mode and will be able to move around the file using the cursor keys. Altering the text is achieved using various commands (see Table 15-1). For example, typing dd will delete the line of text that the cursor is currently within. Typing x will delete the letter under the cursor. Typing dw will delete the current word under the cursor. Try some of these to see how they work. To actually edit a file and type text, you ll need to switch to Insert mode. Type i to do this. Insert mode is fairly easy to understand. You can move around the text using the cursor keys, and then simply start typing wherever you want. The Backspace key will delete text behind the cursor, and the Delete key will delete text in front of the cursor. When you re finished, press the Esc key to return to Command mode. Once back in Command mode, you can page through the text. The Page Up and Page Down keys will move a screenful of text at a time. Pressing the up and down cursor keys will cause the screen to scroll when the cursor reaches the top or bottom. After you re finished editing, you ll need to save the file. This is done in Command-Line mode. You can enter this mode by typing a colon (:). You ll see a colon appear at the bottom of the screen, and this is where you type the commands. Note that after you type a command, you ll immediately exit Command-Line mode, so if you want to issue another command, you ll need to type a colon again. To save a file, in Command-Line mode, type :w (which stands for write ). If you want to save the current file with a different name, you ll need to enter a filename after the w command, like this: :w mytextfile To quit vi, type :q. However, if you ve edited a file, you won t be able to quit until the file has been saved. If you want to save the file and then quit, you can type :wq. If you don t want to save the file, type :q!. The exclamation point tells vi to override any objections it might have. You can also use it with the save command :w! to force the overwriting of a file that already exists.
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