create barcode in asp.net c# Figure 17-2. BASH history completion is very useful but can also be confusing. in Font

Generating Code 3 of 9 in Font Figure 17-2. BASH history completion is very useful but can also be confusing.

Figure 17-2. BASH history completion is very useful but can also be confusing.
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It s not uncommon for a directory listing or output from another command to scroll off the screen. When using a GUI program like GNOME Terminal, you can use the scroll bars to view the output, but what if you are working at the bare command-line prompt By pressing Shift+Page Up and Shift+Page Down, you can scroll the window up to take a look at some of the old output, but very little is cached in this way, and you won t see more than a few screens. A far better solution is to pipe the output of the directory listing into a text viewer. Another useful technique is to redirect output to a file.
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Piping was one of the original innovations provided by Unix. It simply means that you can pass the output of one command to another, which is to say the output of one command can be used as input for another. This is possible because shell commands work like machines. They usually take input from the keyboard (referred to technically as standard input) and, when they ve done their job, usually show their output on the screen (known as standard output). The commands don t need to take input from the keyboard, and they don t need to output to the screen. Piping is the process of diverting the output before it reaches the screen and passing it to another command for further processing.
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Let s assume that you have a directory that is packed full of files. You want to do a long directory listing (ls l) to see what permissions various files have. But doing this produces reams of output that fly off the screen. Typing something like the following provides a solution: ls l | less The | symbol between the two commands is the pipe. It can be found on most US keyboards next to the square bracket keys (above the Enter key; you ll need to hold down the Shift key to get it). What happens in the example is that ls l is run by the shell, but rather than sending the output to the screen, the pipe symbol (|) tells BASH to send it to the command that follows to less. In other words, the listing is displayed within less, where you can read it at your leisure. You can use Page Up and Page Down or the arrow keys to scroll through it. Once you quit less, the listing evaporates into thin air; the piped output is never actually stored as a file. In the previous section, you saw how you can use the history command to view the command history. At around 1,000 entries, its output scrolls off the screen in seconds. However, you can pipe it to less, like so: history | less Figure 17-3 shows the result on my test PC.
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Figure 17-3. Piping the output of the history command into the less command lets you read the output fully. You can pipe the output of any command. One of the most common uses is when searching for a particular string in the output of a command. For example, let s say you know that, within a crowded directory, there s a file with a picture of some flowers. You know that the word flower is in the filename, but can t recall any other details. One solution is to perform a directory listing,
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and then pipe the results to grep, which is able to search through text for a user-defined string (see 15): ls l | grep i 'flower' In this example, the shell runs the ls l command, and then passes the output to grep. The grep command then searches the output for the word flower (the i option tells it to ignore uppercase and lowercase). If grep finds any results, it will show them on your screen. The key point to remember is that grep is used here as it normally is at the command prompt. The only difference is that it s being passed input from a previous command, rather than being used on its own. You can pipe more than once on a command line. Suppose you know that the filename of the picture you want involves the words flower and daffodil, yet you re unsure of where they might fall in the filename. In this case, you could type the following: ls l | grep i flower | grep -i daffodil This will pass the result of the directory listing to the first grep, which will search the output for the word flower. The second pipe causes the output from grep to be passed to the second grep command, where it s then searched for the word daffodil. Any results are then displayed on your screen.
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