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3 Use the cursor keys to move up and down in the document. Type Q
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4 This is a system command and can be run only on a disk that isn t currently in use. To scan the main partition, you ll
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need to boot from the installation CD and select the rescue option. Then issue the fsck command.
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5 The info command can
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CHAPTER 13 INTRODUCING THE BASH SHELL
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If you ve ever used DOS, you might find yourself inadvertently typing DOS commands at the shell prompt. Some of these will actually work, because most distribution companies create command aliases to ease the transition of newcomers to Linux. Aliases mean that whenever you type certain words, they will be interpreted as meaning something else. However, an alias won t work with any of the command-line switches used in DOS. In the long run, you should try to learn the BASH equivalents. You can create your own command aliases quickly and simply. Just start a BASH shell and type the following: alias <DOS command>='<Linux shell command>' For example, to create an alias that lets you type del instead of rm, type this: alias del='rm' Note that the Ubuntu command must appear in single quotation marks.
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Listing Files
Possibly the most fundamentally useful BASH command is ls. This will list the files in the current directory, as shown in Figure 13-3. If you have a lot of files, they might scroll off the screen. If you re running GNOME Terminal, you can use the scroll bar on the right side of the window to view the list.
Figure 13-3. The ls command lists the files in the current directory.
CHAPTER 13 INTRODUCING THE BASH SHELL
Having the files scroll off the screen can be annoying, so you can cram as many as possible onto each line by typing the following: ls -m The dash after the command indicates that you re using a command option. These are also referred to as command-line flags or switches. Nearly all shell commands have options like this. In fact, some commands won t do anything unless you specify various options. In the case of the ls command, only one dash is necessary, but some commands need two dashes to indicate an option. You can see a list of all the command options for ls by typing the following (ironically, itself a command option): ls --help Once again, the output will scroll off the screen, and you can use the window s scroll bars to examine it. (In 17, you ll learn a trick you can use to be able to read this output without needing to fiddle around with the scroll bars, even if there s screen after screen of it.) With most commands, you can use many command options at once, as long as they don t contradict each other. For example, you could type the following: ls lh This tells the ls command to produce long output and also to produce human-readable output. The long option (-l) lists file sizes and ownership permissions, among other details (permissions are covered in the next chapter). The human-readable option (-h) means that rather than listing files in terms of bytes (such as 1029725 bytes), it will list them in kilobytes and megabytes. Notice that you can simply list the options after the dash; you don t need to give each option its own dash.
Caution I ve said it before, and I ll say it again: don t forget that case-sensitivity is vitally important in
Ubuntu! Typing ls L is not the same as typing ls l. It will produce different results.
Copying Files
Another useful command for dealing with files is cp, which copies files. You can use the cp command in the following way: cp myfile /home/keir/ This will copy the file to the location specified.
CHAPTER 13 INTRODUCING THE BASH SHELL
One important command-line option for cp is r. This stands for recursive and tells BASH that you want to copy a directory and its contents (as well as any directories within this directory). Most commands that deal with files have a recursive option.
Note Only a handful of BASH commands default to recursive copying. Even though it s extremely common
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