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to copy folders, you still need to specify the -r command option most of the time.
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One curious trick is that you can copy a file from one place to another but, by specifying a filename in the destination part of the command, change its name. Here s an example: cp myfile /home/keir/myfile2 This will copy myfile to /home/keir, but rename it as myfile2. Be careful not to add a final slash to the command when you do this. In the example here, doing so would cause BASH to think that myfile2 is a directory. This way of copying files is a handy way of duplicating files. By not specifying a new location in the destination part of the command, but still specifying a different filename, you effectively duplicate the file within the same directory: cp myfile myfile2 This will result in two identical files: one called myfile and one called myfile2.
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Moving Files
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The mv command is similar to cp, except that rather than copying the file, the old one is removed. You can move files from one directory to another, for example, like this: mv myfile /home/keir/ You can also use the mv command to quickly rename files: mv myfile myfile2 Figure 13-4 shows the results of using mv to rename a file.
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Note Getting technical for a moment, moving a file in Linux isn t the same as in Windows, where a file is
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copied and then the original deleted. Under Ubuntu, the file s absolute path is rewritten, causing it to simply appear in a different place in the file structure. However, the end result is the same.
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CHAPTER 13 INTRODUCING THE BASH SHELL
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Figure 13-4. You can also use the mv command to rename files.
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Deleting Files
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But how do you get rid of files Again, this is relatively easy, but first a word of caution: the shell doesn t operate any kind of Recycle Bin. Once a file is deleted, it s gone forever. (There are utilities you can use to recover files, but these are specialized tools and aren t to be relied on for day-today use.) Removing a file is achieved by typing something like this: rm myfile It s as simple as that. You ll be asked to confirm the deletion after you issue the command. If you want to delete a file without being asked to confirm it, type the following: rm f myfile The f stands for force (that is, force the deletion). If you try to use the rm command to remove a directory, you ll see an error message. This is because the command needs an additional option: rm rf mydirectory As noted earlier, the r stands for recursive and indicates that any folder specified afterwards should be deleted, in addition to any files it contains.
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CHAPTER 13 INTRODUCING THE BASH SHELL
Tip You might have used wildcards within Windows and DOS. They can be used within Ubuntu, too. For example, the asterisk (*) can be used to mean any file. So, you can type rm f * to delete all files within a directory, or type rm f myfile* to delete all files that start with the word myfile. But remember to be careful with the rm command. Keep in mind that you cannot salvage files easily if you accidentally delete them!
Changing and Creating Directories
Another handy command is cd, for change directory. This lets you move around the file system, from directory to directory. Say you re in a directory that has another directory in it, named mydirectory2. Switching to it is easy: cd mydirectory2 But how do you get out of this directory once you re in it Try the following command: cd .. The .. refers to the parent directory, which is the one containing the directory you re currently browsing. Using two dots to indicate this may seem odd, but it s just the way that Ubuntu (and Unix before it) does things. It s one of the many conventions that Unix relies on and that you ll pick up as you go along. You can create directories with the mkdir command: mkdir mydirectory
Summary
This chapter introduced the command-line shell, considered by many to be the heart of Linux. We ve discussed its similarities to MS-DOS, and shown that these are only cursory; knowledge of DOS doesn t equate to skill within BASH. In the long run, you should work to polish your BASH skills. This chapter also introduced some elementary commands used within BASH, such as those used to provide directory listings and to copy files. We looked at how you can use commandline options to control BASH tools. In many cases, these are mandatory, so you learned how the BASH shell itself can be used to investigate a command and find out vital information about how it works. At this point, your newfound knowledge will have no doubt caused you to venture into the Ubuntu file system itself, which can be a confusing, if not terrifying, place for the inexperienced. But don t worry. The next chapter explains everything you need to know about the file system and what you ll find in it.
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