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ROOT VS. SUDO
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Most versions of Linux have two types of user accounts: standard and root. Standard users are those who can run programs on the system but are limited in what they can do. Root users have complete run of the system, and as such, are often referred to as superusers. They can access and/or delete whatever files they want. They can configure hardware, change settings, and so on.
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CHAPTER 14 UN DERS TANDING LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
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Most versions of Linux create a user account called root and let users log in as root to perform system maintenance. However, for practical as well as security reasons, most of the time the user is logged in as a standard user. Ubuntu is different in that it does away with the root account. Instead, it allows certain users, including the one created during installation, to temporarily adopt root-like powers. You will already have encountered this when configuring hardware. As you ve seen, all you need to do is type your password when prompted in order to administer the system. This way of working is referred to as sudo, which is short for superuser do. In fact, the command sudo will let you adopt root powers at the shell prompt simply preface any command with sudo in order to run it with root privileges. (A different command is normally used if you want to run graphical applications from the shell prompt gksu. However, the effect is the same.) Ubuntu remembers when you last used sudo too, so that it won t annoy you by asking you again for your password wtihin 15 minutes of its first use. You can avoid this grace period by typing sudo -k. In some ways, the sudo system is slightly less secure than using a standard root account. But it s also a lot simpler. It reduces the chance of serious errors, too. Any command or tweak that can cause damage will invariably require administrative powers, and therefore require you to type your password or preface the command with sudo. This serves as a warning and prevents mistakes. If you re an experienced Linux user and want to invoke the root account, simply type the following at the command prompt: sudo passwd root Then, type a password. If you subsequently want to deactivate the root account, type this: sudo passwd -l root If you ever want to slip into the root account for a short period, even if you haven t followed the previous instructions to activate the root account login, you can do so by typing the following: sudo su You ll be prompted to type your password; do so. When you ve finished, type exit to return to your standard user account.
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When you issue the ls -l command, each file is listed on an individual line. Here s an example of one line of a file listing from our test PC:
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-rw-r--r--
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2 keir keir 673985982 2006-11-31 17:19 myfile
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CHAPTER 14 UNDERS TA NDIN G LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
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The r, w, and symbols on the very left of the listing indicate the file permissions. The permission list usually consists of the characters r (for read), w (for write), x (for execute), or - (meaning none are applicable). They re followed by a number indicating the link count, which indicates how many hard/soft links have been made to the file, but you can ignore this for the moment (for more information about file links, see the Creating File Links sidebar). After this is listed the owner of the file (keir in the example) and then the group that also has permission to access the file (in this case, the group is also called keir). This is followed by the file size (in bytes), the date and time the file was last accessed, and finally, the filename itself appears. The file permissions part of the listing might look confusing, but it s actually quite simple. To understand what s going on, you need to split it into groups of four, as illustrated in Figure 14-2.
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