vb.net barcode component UN DERS TANDING LINUX FILES AN D US ERS in Java

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CHAPTER 14 UN DERS TANDING LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
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As mentioned, apart from the link count, there will be no obvious sign the new link is, in fact, a link: -rw-r--r--rw-r--r-2 keir keir 0 2006-11-21 15:30 original_file 2 keir keir 0 2006-11-21 15:30 link
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The hard link adopts all the properties of the file, including its permissions and date/time of creation. It even has the same link count!
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The File System Explained
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Now that you understand the principles of files and users, we can take a bird s-eye view of the Linux file system and start to make sense of it. You might already have ventured beyond the /home directory and wandered through the file system. You no doubt found it thoroughly confusing, largely because it s not like anything you re used to. The good news is that it s not actually very hard to understand. If nothing else, you should be aware that nearly everything can be ignored during everyday use.
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Note The Ubuntu file system is referred to as a hierarchical file system. This means that it consists of a
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lot of directories that contain files. Windows also uses a hierarchical file system. Ubuntu refers to the very bottom level of the file system as the root. This has no connection with the root user.
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You can switch to the root of the file system by typing the following shell command:
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cd /
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When used on its own, the forward slash is interpreted as a shortcut for root. If we do this on our PC and then ask for a long file listing (ls -l), we see the following:
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total 108 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2006-11-14 04:29 bin drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2006-11-14 04:27 boot lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 11 2006-11-14 04:20 cdrom -> media/cdrom drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 13500 2006-11-22 05:44 dev drwxr-xr-x 102 root root 4096 2006-11-22 11:35 etc drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2006-11-14 04:26 home drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2006-10-25 09:26 initrd lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 33 2006-11-14 04:27 initrd.img -> boot/
CHAPTER 14 UNDERS TA NDIN G LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
initrd.img-2.6.17-10-generic drwxr-xr-x 17 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 49152 drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 dr-xr-xr-x 94 root root 0 drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 11 root root 0 drwxrwxrwt 12 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 11 root root 4096 drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 30 vmlinuz-2.6.17-10-generic
2006-11-14 2006-11-14 2006-10-25 2006-10-19 2006-10-25 2006-11-22 2006-11-22 2006-11-14 2006-10-25 2006-11-22 2006-11-22 2006-10-25 2006-10-25 2006-11-14
04:29 04:20 09:26 18:49 09:26 00:43 11:14 04:28 09:26 00:43 11:00 09:26 09:39 04:27
lib lost+found media mnt opt proc root sbin srv sys tmp usr var vmlinuz -> boot/
The first thing you ll notice from this is that the root of the file system contains largely directories and that all files and directories are owned by root. Only users with administrative powers can write files to the root of the file system. That means if you wanted to write to the root of the file system or otherwise access those files, you would need to use the sudo command. This is to prevent damage, since most of the directories in the root of the file system are vital to the correct running of Linux and contain essential programs or data.
Caution It s incredibly easy to slip up when using the command-line shell and thereby cause a lot of
damage. For example, simply mistyping a forward slash in a command can mean the difference between deleting the files in a directory and deleting the directory itself. This is just another reason why you should always be careful when working at the command line, especially if you use the sudo command.
As you can see from the file permissions of each directory in the root of the file system, most directories allow all users to browse them and access the files within (the last three characters of the permissions read r-x). You just won t be able to write new files there or delete the directories themselves. You might be able to modify or execute programs contained within the directory, but this will depend on the permissions of each individual file. Table 14-3 provides a brief description of what each directory and file in the Ubuntu root file system contains. This is for reference only; there s no need for you to learn this
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