vb.net barcode component UN DERS TANDING LINUX FILES AN D US ERS in Java

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CHAPTER 14 UN DERS TANDING LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
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Tip To learn more about installing hard disks, see www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000413.htm.
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Here are the steps you would typically follow:
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1. The first thing to do is create a mount point, which is a directory that will act as a
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location where you can tell mount to make the disk accessible.
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Note The mount point doesn t necessarily have to be empty or new! You can use any directory as a mount
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point, and as long as the file system is mounted, the original contents of the directory will be invisible. However, to avoid confusion, it s best to create a new independent mount point.
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You can create the new directory anywhere, but under Ubuntu, the convention is to create it in the /media directory. Therefore, the following command should do the trick (note that you need to use the sudo command, because writing to any directory other than your /home directory requires administrator privileges):
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sudo mkdir /media/newdisk 2. You now need to know what kind of partition type is used on the disk, because you
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need to specify this when mounting. To find this out, use the fdisk command. Type the following exactly as it appears:
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sudo fdisk -l /dev/hdb 3. This will list the partitions on the second disk drive (assuming an average PC
system). With most hard disks used under Windows, you should find a single partition that will be either NTFS or FAT32. The examples here assume that this is hdb1.
Caution Be aware that fdisk is a dangerous system command that can damage your system. The
program is designed to partition disks and can wipe out your data if you re not careful!
4. With this information in hand, you re now ready to mount the disk. For a FAT32
disk, type the following:
sudo mount -t vfat o umask=000 /dev/hdb1 /media/newdisk
CHAPTER 14 UNDERS TA NDIN G LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
For an NTFS disk, type the following:
sudo mount -t ntfs -o umask=0222 /dev/hdb1 /media/newdisk
The -t command option is used to specify the file system type. The -o flag indicates that you re going to specify some more command options, and you do so in the form of umask, which tells mount to ensure that the directory is readable (and writable in the case of the FAT32 drive). After this, you specify the relevant file in the /dev directory (this file is only virtual, of course, and merely represents the hardware), and then specify the directory that is acting as your mount point.
Note Although the fstab file refers to UUID numbers, for a temporary mount, it s fine to refer specifically
to the hardware within the /dev directory.
Now when you browse to the /mnt/newdisk directory by typing cd /mnt/newdisk, you should find the contents of the hard disk accessible. You should also have found that a new icon appeared on the desktop for the file system which you can double-click to access the new disk via Nautilus. For more information about the mount command, read its man page (type man mount).
Removing a Mounted System
To unmount a system, you use the special command umount (notice there s no n after the first u). Here s an example of using the command to unmount the hard disk we mounted previously:
sudo umount /media/newdisk
All you need to do is tell the umount command the mount point. Alternatively, you can specify the file in the /dev directory that refers to mounted resource, but this is a little complicated, so in most cases, it s better to simply specify the file system location of the mount. If you re currently browsing the mounted directory, you ll need to leave it before you can unmount it. The same is true of all kinds of access to the mounted directory. If you re browsing the mounted drive with Nautilus or if a piece of software is accessing it, you won t be able to unmount it until you ve quit the program and closed the Nautilus window (or browsed to a different part of the file system).
CHAPTER 14 UN DERS TANDING LINUX FILES AN D US ERS
USEFUL BASIC SHELL COMMANDS
Here are some additional shell commands that you might find useful on a day-to-day basis. Don t forget you can view the man pages of these commands to learn more. Note that commands for manipulating text files are dealt with in the next chapter. clear: Clear the terminal window, and put the cursor at the top of the window. date: Display current date and time. dmesg: Show the output of the kernel, including error messages (useful for problem solving). eject: Eject a CD/DVD. exit: Log out of current user account being accessed at the command line (if issued in a terminal window, the window will close). file: Display useful information about the specified file; the filename should be stated immediately afterward (that is, file myfile.txt). free: Display information about memory usage; add -m command option to see output in megabytes. halt: Shut down the computer (needs to be run as root, so prefeace with sudo). help: Show a list of commonly used BASH commands. last: Show recent system logins. pwd: Print Working Directory; this will simply tell you the full path of where you re currently browsing. reboot: Reboot the computer (needs to be run as root, so preface with sudo). shred: Destroy the specified file beyond recovery by overwriting with junk data; the filename should be specified immediately afterward. touch: Give the specified file s current date and time; if the specified file doesn t exist, then create an empty file. The filename should be specified immediately afterward. uptime: Display how long the computer has been booted, plus various CPU usage statistics. whatis: Display a one-line summary of the specified command; the command name should follow immediately afterward.
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