generate barcode in asp.net c# Performing Basic File System Management Tasks in Font

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Performing Basic File System Management Tasks
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On a Linux system such as Ubuntu, everything is treated as a file. Even a device like your hard disk is addressed by pointing to a file (which, for your information, has the name /dev/sda in most cases). Therefore, working with files is the most important task when administering Linux. In this section, you ll learn the basics of managing a file system. The following subjects are covered: Working with directories Working with files Viewing text files Creating empty files
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Because files are normally organized in directories, it is important that you know how to handle these directories. This involves a few commands: cd: This command changes the current working directory. When using cd, make sure to use the proper syntax. First, names of commands and directories are case sensitive; therefore, /bin is not the same as /BIN. Next, you should be aware that Linux uses a forward slash instead of a backslash for directory paths. So use cd /bin and not cd \bin to change the current directory to /bin.
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Switching between directories Use cd - to return to the last directory you were in. Tip
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pwd: The pwd command stands for print working directory. Although you can usually see the directory you are currently in from the command-line prompt (this is a Bash shell setting), sometimes you can t. If this is the case, pwd offers help.
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CHAPTER 2 GETTING THE MOST FROM THE COMMAND LINE
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mkdir: If you need to create a new directory, use mkdir. With mkdir you can create a complete directory structure in one command as well, which is something you can t do on other operating systems. For example, the command mkdir /some/directory will fail if /some does not already exist. In that case, you can force mkdir to create /some as well: do this by using the mkdir -p /some/directory command. rmdir: The rmdir command is used to remove directories. However, this isn t the most useful command because it works only on directories that are already empty. If the directory still has files and/or subdirectories in it, use rm r or (eveb better) rm rf, which makes sure that you ll never get a prompt for confirmation. You should be sure that you know what you re doing when using this option.
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Working with Files
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An important task from the command line is managing the files in the directories. Four important commands are used for this purpose: ls lists files. rm removes files. cp copies files. mv moves files.
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Listing Files with ls
Before you can manage files on your server, you must first know what files are there; to do that you can use the ls command. If you just use ls to show the contents of a given directory, it displays a list of files. Of course, these files have properties as well, such as a user who is the owner of the file, some permissions, and the size of the file. To list all the files along with their properties, use ls -l. See Listing 2-3 for an example. Listing 2-3. Example Output of ls -l root@RNA:/boot# total 10032 -rw-r--r-- 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 drwxr-xr-x 2 -rw-r--r-- 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 ls -l root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root 414210 83298 4096 6805645 94600 812139 1763308 240567 2007-04-15 2007-04-15 2007-07-29 2007-06-05 2006-10-20 2007-04-15 2007-04-15 2007-03-24 02:19 00:33 02:51 04:15 05:44 02:20 02:19 10:03 abi-2.6.20-15-server config-2.6.20-15-server grub initrd.img-2.6.20-15-server memtest86+.bin System.map-2.6.20-15-server vmlinuz-2.6.20-15-server xen-3.0-i386.gz
Apart from the option -l, ls has many other options as well. An especially useful one is the -d option, and the following example shows why. When working with the ls command, wildcards can be used. So, ls * will show a list of all files in the current directory, ls /etc/*a.*
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