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Setting up xinetd by Hand
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The xinetd service consists of three different parts: The xinetd daemon The default configuration file /etc/xinetd.conf The configuration files for individual services in the /etc/xinetd.d directory
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Managing the xinetd Daemon
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The xinetd service is implemented by the daemon process xinetd, which has a script in /etc/init.d that allows you to start and stop this process automatically. Be aware that xinetd
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CHAPTER 9 CONFIGURING NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES
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is not activated by default, so start it first using /etc/init.d/xinetd start. This command reads all service configuration files and makes sure that all services that have their enabled status set to on are reachable from that moment on. From time to time, you ll have to restart the xinetd service because it doesn t automatically check its configuration files for changes. So, if you ve made any modifications to the services files, be sure to activate them by using the /etc/init.d/xinetd reload or /etc/init.d/xinetd restart command.
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The configuration of xinetd occurs in two locations. First, there s the /etc/xinetd.conf file that contains generic settings, and then there s the /etc/xinetd.d subdirectory that can contain files to configure individual xinetd services. It can contain service-specific settings as well, but that s not the default way to go on Ubuntu Server: every individual service has its own configuration file in /etc/xinetd.d. On Ubuntu Server, xinetd.conf is not used and all configuration is in the individual configuration files in /etc/xinetd.d.
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Tuning the Individual Services
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Every service that works with xinetd has its own configuration file in /etc/xinetd.d. In these configuration files, you ll find options that specify how a service must be started. An example of this is in the configuration file in Listing 9-16. The most important of the options is disabled = yes, which is on by default. Because it s on by default, the service won t run until you remove the option or change it to disabled = no. Listing 9-16 shows the configuration file for the time service. Listing 9-16. Default Configuration File for the time Service root@RNA:~# cat /etc/xinetd.d/time # default: off # description: An RFC 868 time server. This protocol provides a # site-independent, machine-readable date and time. The Time service sends back # to the originating source the time in seconds since midnight on January first # 1900. # This is the tcp version. service time { disable = yes type = INTERNAL id = time-stream socket_type = stream protocol = tcp user = root wait = no }
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CHAPTER 9 CONFIGURING NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES
# This is the udp version. service time { disable = yes type = INTERNAL id = time-dgram socket_type = dgram protocol = udp user = root wait = yes } Of the options used in this configuration file, only two are really important because the rest of them are set automatically. The first option that you have to tune is the disable option. This option by default has the value yes, which means that the service is not active. To activate the service, set it to disable = no. The second option is user, which specifies what user permissions the option should be started with. Many services are started as root by default. If you can, change it to some other user with not so many permissions.
Tuning Access to Services with TCP Wrapper
If a service runs from xinetd, it can be secured with TCP Wrapper. To ensure that you can use it, install TCP wrapper using apt-get install tcpd as root. Stated in a more general way, if a service is using the libwrap.so library module, you can secure it with TCP Wrapper. Because xinetd uses this module, you can secure it this way. Other services that aren t started with xinetd but do use this library can be secured with TCP Wrapper as well. To check if a service is capable of working with TCP Wrapper, use the ldd command followed by the complete name of the service you want to check. If libwrap.so is listed, TCP Wrapper works for the service. If it isn t, use a generic firewall such as iptables. See Listing 9-17 for an example. Listing 9-17. Checking If a Service Can Be Secured with TCP Wrapper root@RNA:~# ldd /usr/sbin/xinetd linux-gate.so.1 => (0xffffe000) libwrap.so.0 => /lib/libwrap.so.0 (0xb7fd0000) libnsl.so.1 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libnsl.so.1 (0xb7fb9000) libm.so.6 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libm.so.6 (0xb7f91000) libcrypt.so.1 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libcrypt.so.1 (0xb7f63000) libc.so.6 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6 (0xb7e22000) /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0xb7fe3000) TCP Wrapper was developed before xinetd existed and when only its predecessor inetd was available. This service didn t include any way of regulating access to services, and so inetd could be used to start tcpd, TCP Wrapper, which in turn could be configured to start the necessary service. The task of tcpd was to check if a host trying to connect to the service was allowed access or not. The nice thing about tcpd is that it sits between (x)inetd and the service a client is connecting to. Therefore, from the outside it s not possible to see whether tcpd is blocking access to a service or if the service simply isn t there.
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