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CHAPTER 4 PERFORMING FILE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT TASKS
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the blocks size that is used. If 1 KB blocks are used, the backup superblock is in block 8193; if 2 KB blocks are used, it is in 16384; and, if 4 KB blocks are used, you can find it in 32768. By running the e2fsck -s 8193 command for example, you may be able to repair a file system that cannot be mounted anymore by using its backup superblock. Another very interesting use is e2fsck -D, which causes e2fsck to optimize directories. It can do this by trying to index them, compress them, or by using other optimization techniques. tune2fs: The Ext2 file system has some tunable parameters. For example, there is the maximum mount count option (which can be set using the -C option). By using this option, you can force e2fsck to run automatically every once in a while by forcing an integrity check. This option may sound good, but, on a server where a file system is sometimes rarely remounted, it can make more sense to use the -i option to set an interval defined as a time period. For example, tune2fs -i 2m will force an e2fsck on your Ext2 file system every two months. The options to check the consistency of your Ext2 file system automatically are not the only options you can use with tune2fs. For example, the option -l will list all information from the file system s superblock. Another interesting option is -L label, which allows you to set a volume label. This can be very useful if device names on your system do change on a regular basis: by using volume names, you can use the name of the volume when mounting the file system in /etc/fstab instead of the name of the device where the file system was created. The last interesting option is -m, which you can use to set a percentage of reserved blocks for your Ext2 file system. By default, the last 5 percent of available disk space is always reserved for the user root to prevent users from filling up the file system by accident. Use the e2fsck -m 2 command to decrease the amount of reserved disk space. dumpe2fs: Every file system maintains a lot of administrative information, and Ext2 stores this in the file system superblock. Also, in Ext2, the block groups that are used as groups of data files can be administered as one entity. If you need to see the information about this file system administration, use dumpe2fs followed by the name you want to dump the administrative information for. Listing 4-7 shows the result of this command.
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Note When using a tool like dumpe2fs, you will see information about available inodes. Every file on
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every POSIX-compliant file system needs an inode to store its administrative information. On Ext2 and Ext3, inodes are created only when you are creating the file system. Normally one inode is created for about every four data blocks. If, however, you create many very small files, you can run into a situation in which free disk blocks are still available but there are no more available inodes. This will make it impossible to create new files. As an administrator, you can use the dumpe2fs command to get an overview of available inodes on your Ext2 file system.
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Listing 4-7. The dumpe2fs Command Displays Properties of the Ext2 File System. root@ubuntu:~# dumpe2fs /dev/sad1 dumpe2fs 1.40-WIP (14-Nov-2006) dumpe2fs: No such file or directory while trying to open /dev/sad1 Couldn't find valid filesystem superblock. root@ubuntu:~# dumpe2fs /dev/sda1 dumpe2fs 1.40-WIP (14-Nov-2006) Filesystem volume name: <none> Last mounted on: <not available> Filesystem UUID: 62ec320f-491f-44cb-a395-1c0ee5c4afb2 Filesystem magic number: 0xEF53 Filesystem revision #: 1 (dynamic) Filesystem features: has_journal resize_inode dir_index filetype needs_recovery sparse_super Filesystem flags: signed directory hash Default mount options: (none) Filesystem state: clean Errors behavior: Continue Filesystem OS type: Linux Inode count: 62248 Block count: 248976 Reserved block count: 12448 Free blocks: 224527 Free inodes: 62218 First block: 1 Block size: 1024 Fragment size: 1024 Reserved GDT blocks: 256 Blocks per group: 8192 Fragments per group: 8192 Inodes per group: 2008 Inode blocks per group: 251 Filesystem created: Mon Jun 4 22:56:35 2007 Last mount time: Mon Jul 2 03:22:21 2007 Last write time: Mon Jul 2 03:22:21 2007 Mount count: 3 Maximum mount count: 26 Last checked: Mon Jun 4 22:56:35 2007 Check interval: 15552000 (6 months) Next check after: Sat Dec 1 21:56:35 2007 Reserved blocks uid: 0 (user root) Reserved blocks gid: 0 (group root) First inode: 11 Inode size: 128 Journal inode: 8 Default directory hash: tea
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