Note In the examples that you can read here, the users talked about are all members of the group in Font

Maker QR-Code in Font Note In the examples that you can read here, the users talked about are all members of the group

Note In the examples that you can read here, the users talked about are all members of the group
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user, which has group ID 100. This is not default behavior on Ubuntu. If you want all new users created with useradd to automatically become members of this group 100 (which is actually the GID for the group user), make sure that you have the line GROUP=100 in the /etc/default/useradd file.
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Ownership is naturally very important when determining what a user can do to a file. Imagine that a file is created by the user root in the user linda home directory and that the permissions on this file are set as follows: -r--r----1 root root 1 537 2006-03-08 10:15 rootsfile
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The big question is what can user linda do to this file. The answer is simple, but there is a caveat. Because user linda is not the owner of the file and also is not a member of the group that owns the file, she has no permissions at all to this file. The fact that the file is in her home directory doesn t mean much because Linux has no such thing as inheritance of permissions. However, user linda has the write right on her home directory and therefore she can remove the file from her home directory. This is not inheritance; it s simply because the write permission in a directory applies to the things that a user can do to files in that directory. What you should remember from this example is that, to determine what a user can do to a file, the most
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CHAPTER 5 CONFIGURING YOUR SERVER FOR SECURITY
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important question to ask is Is the user owner of the file The fact that a file is in the user s directory is just not relevant here. It s ownership that counts.
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Changing File Ownership
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To change the ownership of a file, use the chown command. The structure of this command is as follows: chown {user|.group} file For example, to make user linda owner of rootsfile, the command chown linda rootsfile must be used. To change the group owner of somefile to the group sales, the chown .sales somefile command is used. Note that, for changing group ownership, the chgrp command can be used as an alternative. Therefore, chown .sales somefile does the same thing as chgrp sales somefile. When using chgrp, the name of the group does not need to be preceded by a dot. By default, chown and chgrp apply only to the file or directory on which they are used. However, you can use the commands to work recursively as well: chown -R linda somedir makes user linda owner of all files in somedir and all subdirectories of that.
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Group Ownership
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When working with group ownership, you should be aware of how group ownership is handled. By default, the primary group of the user who creates a new file becomes the group owner of that file. If, however, the user is a member of more than one group, this default setting can be manipulated. When a user issues the newgrp command, he can change the primary group setting on a temporary basis. The following steps show what happens next: 1. Log in as some normal user on your computer. Then, from a console window, use the groups command to get an overview of all groups that you are currently a member of. The primary group is listed first. If you haven t modified anything for this user, it will have the same name as your user account. Listing 5-4 is an example of this output.
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Listing 5-4. The groups Command Always Shows Your Primary Group First. sander@RNA:~$ groups sander adm dialout cdrom floppy audio dip video plugdev scanner lpadmin admin 2. Now, from the console window, issue the touch newfile command to create a new file with the name newfile. Then use ls -l newfile to display the ownership information for newfile. You will see that the primary group is set as the owner of the file (see Listing 5-5).
Listing 5-5. The User s Primary Group Will Always Be Set As Its Owner. sander@RNA:~$ ls l newfile -rw-r--r-- 1 sander sander 0 2007-07-28 10:05 newfile
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