vb.net qr code sample s LEARNING MORE ABOUT QUERIES in Visual Basic .NET

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CHAPTER 11 s LEARNING MORE ABOUT QUERIES
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In this chapter, we covered how to construct more sophisticated queries using the following SQL features: The DISTINCT keyword to eliminate duplicates from the result set Subqueries, which are queries embedded in other queries The IN predicate, using lists of literals and lists returned by subqueries Aggregate functions such as MIN, MAX, SUM, and AVG The GROUP BY clause for categorizing aggregates CASE expressions for providing column values based on logical tests Functions for accessing the components of the datetime data type Correlation names Inner, outer, and other joins In the next chapter, you ll learn about another important database object: stored procedures.
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Using Stored Procedures
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tored procedures are programs run on the database server that allow you to package SQL in an optimal fashion for reuse. Writing stored procedures is a major study in itself. Our goal here is to introduce you to the rudiments of stored procedures so you understand how Visual Basic programs need to interact with them. In this chapter, we cover: Creating, modifying, and deleting stored procedures in SSMSE Using stored procedures in Visual Basic programs
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Creating Stored Procedures
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Stored procedures can have parameters that can be used for input or output. They also have a single integer return value (which defaults to zero), and they can return zero or more result sets. They can be called from client programs or other stored procedures. They are powerful indeed and are becoming the preferred mode for much database programming, particularly for multi-tier applications and Web services, since (among their many benefits) they can dramatically reduce network traffic between clients and database servers. You ll create three stored procedures (two of which you ll access from Visual Basic), one that is about as trivial as it can get, one that introduces you to parameters, and one that exhibits the common traits you typically handle when calling a stored procedure from Visual Basic.
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CHAPTER 12 s USING STORED PROCEDURES
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Try It Out: Creating and Executing a Trivial Stored Procedure
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Let s create a stored procedure that produces a list of the names of employees in the Northwind database. It requires no input and doesn t need to set a return value. 1. In Object Explorer, expand the Northwind node, expand the Programmability node, right-click the Stored Procedures node, and click New Stored Procedure . (See Figure 12-1.)
Figure 12-1. Creating a stored procedure in Object Explorer
2. You ll be presented with a SQL edit window as in Figure 12-2.
CHAPTER 12 s USING STORED PROCEDURES
Figure 12-2. SSMSE edit window for stored procedures
3. It has some comments and a bit of SQL already generated that provide a skeleton for stored procedure code, but we don t need any of this, so replace it all with the following SQL:
create procedure sp_Select_All_Employees as select employeeid, firstname, lastname from employees
CHAPTER 12 s USING STORED PROCEDURES
4. Execute the SQL. You should see the screen in Figure 12-3.
Figure 12-3. Creating a stored procedure in SSMSE
s Caution The sp_ prefix can incur a runtime cost, since SSE treats all stored procedure names with this
prefix as system stored procedures and expects to find them in the master database. If it doesn t find them there, it has to look again in the SSE memory cache. If you name your own procedures with an sp_ prefix, you can avoid this cost by storing them in the master database. The best practice is to not use the sp_ prefix, though in our trivial examples, it doesn t matter.
5. To execute the stored procedure, expand the Stored Procedures node, right-click it, and click Refresh, to display the new stored procedure node. Then right-click dbo.sp_Select_All_Employees and click Execute Stored Procedure . A prompt window appears as in Figure 12-4, where you could enter values for input parameters. However, there are none for this stored procedure, so just click OK.
CHAPTER 12 s USING STORED PROCEDURES
Figure 12-4. Prompting for stored procedure parameters
6. The stored procedure runs, and you should get the results in Figure 12-5. Note that SSMSE displays both the result set and the return value in grids. The return value is zero by default. Now scroll down in the Results window and see how many rows are in the result set. It should be 10. Look at the rightmost entry in the status bar. It says 11 rows . SMSE is reporting all the rows it returned, both the rows in Results and the row in Return Value.
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