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11.1 Getting to the bottom of Hibernate Search
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Getting under the covers to interact directly with native Lucene constructs is not difficult. The most important class here is Hibernate Search s org.hibernate.search .SearchFactory class. It s the gateway to native Lucene. The SearchFactory keeps track of the underlying Lucene resources for Hibernate Search. The contract for SearchFactoryImpl is maintained by the SearchFactory and SearchFactoryImplementor interfaces. You can access the SearchFactory from an org.hibernate.search.FullTextSession instance, which is obtained from a Hibernate session, as shown in the following code:
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FullTextSession fullTextSession = Search.createFullTextSession(SessionFactory.openSession()); SearchFactory searchFactory = fullTextSession.getSearchFactory();
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Once you have an instance of the SearchFactory, you have all you need to work directly with Lucene. From here you can obtain references to Lucene s Directory object and also Lucene s IndexReader. We ll look at these in the following sections.
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11.1.1 Accessing a Lucene directory
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Lucene has a notion of a Directory, which it uses to store its indexed information. A Directory is a list of flat files that may be written to once, when they are created. Once created, a file can be opened only for reading or deleting. Random access to the files is permitted at all times.
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Getting to the bottom of Hibernate Search
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All file I/O goes through Lucene s API, so that it s nicely encapsulated, but you still retain all needed flexibility. This allows Lucene s indexes to be manipulated and stored several ways, such as these:
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A set of flat files on some type of persistent storage A RAM-based directory implementation A database index implementation, via JDBC The authors do not recommend implementing the JDBC configuration. We ll discuss why in section 11.3.
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You can always access the native Lucene directories through plain Lucene. The
Directory structure is in no way different with or without Hibernate Search. However, there are more convenient ways to access a given Directory. The SearchFactory we discussed previously keeps track of all of the org.hibernate.search.store.DirectoryProviders that an indexed class may utilize. You obtain access to directories via the DirectoryProvider. Notice the use of the plural of DirectoryProvider here. A given entity can have several DirectoryProviders, one
per shard, if the index is sharded (see the discussion on index sharding in section 9.4). In the opposite vein, one DirectoryProvider can be shared among several indexed classes if the classes share the same underlying index directory. Section 11.1.5 provides an example of this index merging. The DirectoryProvider class s main aims are to:
Set up a Lucene directory for an index Serve as an abstraction separating Hibernate Search from the Lucene directory implementation This implementation could be in any form, even that of a server cluster and not just of a single file system directory.
Assuming we have an index built from Order information, here is a code example showing how to obtain an instance of a Lucene org.apache.lucene.store.Directory.
DirectoryProvider[] providers = searchFactory.getDirectoryProviders(Order.class); org.apache.lucene.store.Directory directory = providers[0].getDirectory();
In this example code, directory points to the Lucene index storing Order information.
WARNING When utilizing the Hibernate Search framework to obtain an instance
of a Lucene Directory, do not call close() on the obtained Directory. This is the responsibility of Hibernate Search. The one opening the resource has to ensure it gets closed; in this case you borrow a Hibernate Search managed instance.
Accessing Lucene natively
Let s look at some examples so you ll better understand what to expect from the default DirectoryProviders that come bundled with Hibernate Search. We will accomplish this by the following steps:
2 3 4 5
Creating an index of a single entity and retrieving its DirectoryProvider(s) to see what we get Creating a sharded index of a single entity and again retrieving the DirectoryProvider(s) to compare with our first result Creating a single index of two entities and examining how the DirectoryProvider(s) have changed in this instance
11.1.2 Obtaining DirectoryProviders from a non-sharded entity
Listing 11.1 shows the simple Animal entity we ll use for the first example. This is nothing more than a simple JavaBean-style class and will work well for our example.
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