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Generation Code39 in Font QUERYING MULTIPLE DATABASE OBJECTS AND MANIPULATING RESULT SETS

CHAPTER 6 QUERYING MULTIPLE DATABASE OBJECTS AND MANIPULATING RESULT SETS
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JOIN HumanResources.Department dn ON dn.DepartmentID = d.DepartmentID) JOIN Empcte a ON e.ManagerID = a.empid) The SELECT statement for the preceding recursive CTE is shown next. This statement selects all column values from the CTE s result set for all lvl values less than or equal to 1. Because the lvl column value starts at 0, using a WHERE clause criterion expression of lvl <= 1 extracts the first two levels of employees at the company. SELECT * FROM Empcte WHERE lvl <= 1 ORDER BY lvl, mgrid, empid You can optionally use the MAXRECURSION hint to limit the number of levels reported. The following alternate version shows the syntax for using MAXRECURSION. The MAXRECURSION levels are zero-based, so a value of 1 designates the return of just the first two levels. The OPTION clause must come after all other clauses, but this position conflicts with the operation of the ORDER BY clause, which also should be the last clause in a SELECT statement. In any event, the OPTION clause argument with a MAXRECURSION hint and an ORDER BY clause does not return row values. Therefore, the ORDER BY clause is dropped. With this design feature, the following SELECT statement and the preceding one return the same rows. SELECT * FROM Empcte OPTION (MAXRECURSION 1) You can enhance your grasp of the syntax for using a recursive CTE by reviewing the result set from either SELECT statement. The following result set is from the SELECT statement with WHERE and ORDER BY clauses. Notice that the first anchor row has a lvl column value of 0. This row is for the top-level employee in the company (the row is also the result of the first iteration in the recursive CTE). This manager has six other employees reporting directly to him. These employee rows in the result set all have lvl values of 1, which indicates they are one level down from the top-level employee of 109 (and are the result of the second iteration through the recursive CTE, where the anchor row SELECT statement counts as the first iteration). Because some of the direct reports to the top-level employee serve as a manager in more than one department, there are more than six rows in the result set with a lvl value of 1. empid ----------109 6 6 12 42 140 140 148 273 empname -------------------Ken J S nchez David M Bradley David M Bradley Terri Lee Duffy Jean E Trenary Laura F Norman Laura F Norman James R Hamilton Brian S Welcker mgrid ----------NULL 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 dName -------------------Executive Purchasing Marketing Engineering Information Services Finance Executive Production Sales lvl ----------0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
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You can use the Empcte CTE with different SELECT statements and assignment values other than 109 for @TopEmp. For example, you may be interested in mapping the employees reporting directly or indirectly to the employee with an employee identification number of 12. You can do this by assigning 12 to @TopEmp in the SET statement before the CTE.
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CHAPTER 6 QUERYING MULTIPLE DATABASE OBJECTS AND MANIPULATING RESULT SETS
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You may also want to show the names of managers as well as their identification number. The following SELECT statement demonstrates the syntax for recovering the employee name corresponding to a manager s identification number. In addition, it sorts returned rows by lvl, mgrid, and empid column values, in that order. SELECT empid, empname, mgrid, CAST(REPLACE(c.FirstName + ' ' + ISNULL(c.MiddleName, '') + ' ' + c.LastName, ' ', ' ') AS nvarchar(18)) 'Manager''s name', dName, lvl FROM Empcte ecte JOIN HumanResources.Employee e ON ecte.mgrid = e.EmployeeID JOIN Person.Contact c ON c.ContactID = e.ContactID ORDER BY lvl, mgrid, empid The result set for the preceding SELECT statement appears next. This result set includes three levels of employees reporting directly or indirectly to the employee with an identification number of 12; the employee s name is Terri Lee Duffy, who is the head of the Engineering department. Terri has people reporting directly and indirectly from the Engineering department as well as the Research and Development and Tool Design departments. The result set truncates the name of one department (Research and Development). Just one employee, Roberto Tamburello, reports directly to Terri. All the other employees in the result set report indirectly to Terri. Rob Walter appears twice as an employee because the EmployeeDepartmentHistory table in the HumanResources schema of the AdventureWorks database maps the EmployeeID for Rob Walter to two different departments (Engineering and Tool Design). empid ----12 3 4 4 9 11 158 263 267 270 79 114 217 5 265 empname -------------------Terri Lee Duffy Roberto Tamburello Rob Walters Rob Walters Gail A Erickson Jossef H Goldberg Dylan A Miller Ovidiu V Cracium Michael I Sullivan Sharon B Salavaria Diane L Margheim Gigi N Matthew Michael Raheem Thierry B D'Hers Janice M Galvin mgrid ----109 12 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 158 158 158 263 263 Manager's name -----------------Ken J S nchez Terri Lee Duffy Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Roberto Tamburello Dylan A Miller Dylan A Miller Dylan A Miller Ovidiu V Cracium Ovidiu V Cracium dName -------------------Engineering Engineering Engineering Tool Design Engineering Engineering Research and Develop Tool Design Engineering Engineering Research and Develop Research and Develop Research and Develop Tool Design Tool Design lvl --0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
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