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Working with an FN User-Defined Function That Has a Parameter
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One particularly powerful feature of user-defined functions is their ability to take one or more input parameters. This capability enables a user to modify the output from a user-defined function at runtime. You can use a function as all or part of the definition of a computed column value in a SELECT statement, a CREATE VIEW statement, or a CREATE TABLE statement. One user-defined function can even call another. All this is possible and made more powerful because user-defined functions can accept input parameters. The next CREATE FUNCTION statement illustrates how simple it is to specify an input parameter for a user-defined function. The following FN user-defined function uses the modulo operator (%) to
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CHAPTER 7 LEVERAGING DATABASE OBJECTS THAT ENCAPSULATE T-SQL
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determine the remainder for dividing a number by 2. The number (@n) is an input parameter. Specifying an int keyword after the parameter assigns an int data type to the @n parameter. Unless the value of @n is null, the function returns a value of either 0 or 1. A return value of 1 indicates @n equals an odd number. A return value of 0 indicates @n is an even number. When ufnIsOdd returns a null value, the value of @n is not specified that is, null. CREATE FUNCTION dbo.ufnIsOdd (@n int) RETURNS bit AS BEGIN RETURN (@n % 2) END GO The following script and output listing show the syntax and results of invoking the ufnIsOdd user-defined function with an even number and an odd number as an input parameter. The code excerpt makes an assignment of a value to a local variable (@numb) before passing the local variable s value to ufnIsOdd. The output from the SELECT statements shows the local variable s value and the output of the ufnIsOdd user-defined function. If a user fails to designate a value for the @n parameter (by, for example, not assigning a value to the @numb local variable), the ufnIsOdd user-defined function returns a null value. DECLARE @numb int SET @numb = 6 SELECT @numb 'Number', dbo.ufnIsOdd (@numb) 'Is_odd = 1' SET @numb = 7 SELECT @numb 'Number', dbo.ufnIsOdd (@numb) 'Is_odd = 1' Number Is_odd = 1 ----------- ---------6 0
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Number Is_odd = 1 ----------- ---------7 1 The next script and output listing show a SELECT statement with a computed column. The SELECT statement invokes the ufnIsOdd user-defined function to compute the fourth column of its result set. In this case, the ufnIsOdd user-defined function derives its input parameter value from the first column (SalesPersonID) in the result set. SELECT TOP 5 SalesPersonID, FirstName, LastName, dbo.ufnIsOdd(SalesPersonID) 'ID_odd = 1' FROM Sales.vSalesPerson SalesPersonID ------------288 283 FirstName --------Syed David LastName -------Abbas Campbell ID_odd = 1 ---------0 1
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CHAPTER 7 LEVERAGING DATABASE OBJECTS THAT ENCAPSULATE T-SQL
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Creating and Using IF User-Defined Functions
An IF user-defined function is very similar to a view. Each type of database object is based on a single SELECT statement. Both a view and an IF user-defined function can return a set of rows with each row having multiple column values. In addition, you can update the underlying data sources for each database object type through the database object.
In spite of the fact that a view and an IF user-defined function can both return a result set, there is one Tip especially important distinction users can modify the result returned by an IF user-defined function that accepts one or more parameters.
IF user-defined functions also have important similarities and differences to FN user-defined functions. Among the similarities are the following two points: You create and drop each type of user-defined function with the CREATE FUNCTION and DROP FUNCTION statements. Both functions accept parameters with the same syntax. Some of the important differences between FN and IF user-defined functions are as follows: The syntax for IF and FN user-defined functions is not the same in the body of the CREATE FUNCTION statement. The syntax for invoking IF and FN functions need not be the same. An FN function can output only a scalar value while an IF function can return a set of rows each with one or more column values. The samples in this section reside in IFUserDefinedFunctions.sql.
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