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CHAPTER 4 DATA TYPES, TABLES, AND CONSTRAINTS
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The following script contrasts float and decimal data types to indicate how a decimal data type can return a precise value for a computation for which a float data type returns an approximate value. Four local variables (@dec1 @dec4) are declared, with a decimal data type having four places to the right of the decimal and a total of 15 digits. This matches the number of digits for float data type accuracy. Four local variables (@float1 @float4) are also declared with a float data type. The script computes the difference between the quotient of 7 divided by 10 less .0001. The computation demonstrates the contrasting results from float and decimal data types. The script generating the following listing is available as Ch04FloatDecimal.sql. SET NOCOUNT ON DECLARE @float1 float, @float2 float, @float3 float, @float4 float DECLARE @dec1 decimal(15,4), @dec2 decimal(15,4), @dec3 decimal(15,4), @dec4 decimal(15,4) DECLARE @pointseven decimal(15,4) SET @float1 = 7 SET @float2 = 10 SET @float3 = .0001 SET @float4 = @float1/@float2 - @float3 SET @dec1 = 7 SET @dec2 = 10 SET @dec3 = .0001 SET @dec4 = @dec1/@dec2 - @dec3 SET @pointseven = .7 SELECT @float4 '@float4', @float3 '@float3', @pointseven - @float4 'float diff' SELECT @dec4 '@dec4', @dec3 '@dec3', @pointseven - @dec4 'dec diff' The following listing shows the difference between the float and the decimal results. The preceding script compares each difference with a local variable named @pointseven that is equal to .7. This local variable has a decimal data type. The decimal difference is precisely .0001. The float difference is approximately .0001, that is, 9.9999999999989E 05. @float4 @float3 float diff ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------0.6999 0.0001 9.9999999999989E-05 @dec4 @dec3 dec diff ---------------------- ---------------------- ---------------------0.6999 0.0001 0.0001
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Character and Binary Byte Streams
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A sequence of 1 or more bytes is a byte stream. SQL Server Express can decode a byte stream to characters, such as letters, numbers, and symbols, or it can just save and retrieve a byte stream without decoding the byte(s). Two common ways for decoding byte streams are with a character code set based on a code page or with a Unicode character set. Decoded byte streams from a database frequently contain names, such as student names or class titles. Binary byte strings are saved and retrieved as raw byte values. A client application, such as a graphics viewer, can decode a binary byte stream into an image.
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CHAPTER 4 DATA TYPES, TABLES, AND CONSTRAINTS
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A code page is a mapping that translates byte values to characters. There are many code pages associated with different languages and locales. Just as a single code page maps byte values to characters for a single language and locale, a Unicode character set maps byte values to characters for all modern languages. There is more than one Unicode character set. SQL Server Express uses the UCS-2 Unicode standard.
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Character codes typically match characters to single-byte representations. When a database application is meant for use with one language in a single locale, such as United States English, then a character code set is an especially useful way of translating bytes to characters. This recommendation uses a single code page that translates bytes to characters. As the number of regional locales that an application has to serve grows beyond a few, it can become exceedingly difficult to find a single code page for translating byte streams properly across all locales. In these circumstances, switching to Unicode characters, which use 2 bytes per character, simplifies the process of translating byte streams to characters in a consistent way across locales. Recall that Unicode character sets are applicable to all modern languages used for business throughout the world. Unicode characters are also especially appropriate for selected Asian languages with more characters than a single byte can represent, such as Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Each of the three types of byte stream types (character, Unicode character, and binary) has three corresponding data types. The first basic data type is for fixed-length values, such as Social Security numbers or credit card numbers. The second basic data type is for variable-length strings. This kind of data type is particularly appropriate for columns storing names, such as first name or last name, in which the values within a column can vary substantially in length across a table s rows. The third basic data type is for byte streams that exceed 8,000 bytes. The column values designated by these long strings are sometimes called large objects.
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