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As you now know, there are two steps to complete, whether you want to create a SQL Server authentication based login or a Windows authentication based login. The first is a server login, which was the first part of creating a login that we went through. A server login is one that, when used, can connect only to the server itself. It cannot use any of the user databases within SQL Server. The second step was creating the database user; in the graphical section that we looked at first, this is when we selected the databases we wanted to use. Within SQL Server, permissions can be granted at multiple levels, including the server and database level. Examples of server-level permissions include creating new logins or managing server properties. Examples of database permissions include being able to read data from a table or being able to create new tables. One server login can be associated with multiple users in different databases. Generally, when using Windows authentication, a database username is the same as the login name, but this does not have to be the case. It does, however, simplify administration. In this book, we will mostly be dealing with database-level permissions, but we will briefly examine server roles in the following section.
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Three different types of roles exist within SQL Server: fixed server roles, database roles (which refers to the general roles included during installation of SQL Server; component-specific roles such as those for Reporting Services that are added when the component is installed; and userdefined roles), and application roles.
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Within SQL Server, specific predefined roles are set up to allow certain tasks and to restrict other tasks. Someone with the right permissions, such as a system administrator, can assign these roles to any user ID or group of user IDs within SQL Server. If you look at the Server Roles node in the Object Explorer, you will see a list of roles as shown in Figure 4-12. But what do they mean You get a little hint if you move to the Server Roles node within SQL Server Management Studio.
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Figure 4-12. Fixed server roles
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Note It is not possible to create your own server role.
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These roles, available for anyone to use across the server, can perform the following tasks: bulkadmin: Run BULK INSERT statements. dbcreator: Create, alter, or drop databases as well as restore them. diskadmin: Administer disk files. processadmin: Kill a login running T-SQL code. securityadmin: Manage logins including passwords for SQL logins and login permissions. serveradmin: Administrate the server and carry out tasks such as changing options and even starting and shutting down the server. setupadmin: Work with more than one server with which they are linked and manage the linked server definitions. sysadmin: Perform any activity. Server roles are static objects. They contain groups of actions that operate at the server level rather than at the database level. When creating a new login, you could assign these server roles to it if you wanted the login to carry out server actions as well as any database-related actions, if required. If your Windows account belongs to the BUILTIN/Administrators group, then it automatically belongs to the sysadmin server role. You can check this yourself by highlighting the sysadmin server role, right-clicking it, and selecting Properties to bring up the dialog box shown in Figure 4-13. You should see BUILTIN/Administrators listed. As more logins are created, they can be added to this role via the Add button. Although we are not going to alter this for our example database, having Windows XP administrators automatically being administrators for SQL Server can be a bit of a security issue. Many companies batten down their computers so that no user is an administrator of his or her local machine. By doing this, they stop people adding their own software, shareware, games, or whatever to a machine that is administrated and looked after by a support team. This helps keep the machine stable, and throughout your organization everyone will know that a piece of software developed on one machine will work on any other. Therefore, users won t have administrator rights on their XP machine and won t have those rights in SQL Server. This is not the case in all organizations. By leaving the Administrators group in the sysadmin role, everyone who has administrator rights on their PC will have system administrator rights within SQL Server. As the owner of the database, you have now lost control of the security and development of your SQL Server database.
Note Because this book assumes that we re using either a standalone PC or a secure set of users, it is safe to keep the Administrators group. However, you will find that this group is usually removed from database setups to keep the security of the database intact. However, it is worth keeping in mind that before removing the login, or removing it from the sysadmin role, that you should set up a new group or user as a system administrator to prevent locking yourself out.
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