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WHERE AND AND ORDER
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t.TransactionId > @LastTran tt.AffectCashBalance = 1 DateEntered BETWEEN @FromDate AND @ToDate BY DateEntered
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5. If we get a row returned, then we continue the loop. Once we get no rows returned, we know that there are no further transactions in the date range. IF @@ROWCOUNT > 0 -- Perform some interest calculation here... CONTINUE ELSE BREAK END SELECT @RunningBal AS 'End Balance' END GO 6. We can now create the stored procedure and test our results. The example is going to check whether Vic McGlynn, customer ID 1, has had a positive or negative movement on her cash balance in the month of August 2008. The code to find this out follows. First of all, we insert some TransactionDetails.Transactions records to test it out. We also prefix the stored procedure with an EXEC(UTE) statement, as this is part of a batch of statements. INSERT INTO TransactionDetails.Transactions (CustomerId,TransactionType,DateEntered,Amount,RelatedProductId) VALUES (1,1,'1 Aug 2008',100.00,1), (1,1,'3 Aug 2008',75.67,1), (1,2,'5 Aug 2008',35.20,1), (1,2,'6 Aug 2008',20.00,1) EXEC CustomerDetails.apf_CustMovement 1,'1 Aug 2008','31 Aug 2008' 7. Execute the preceding code, which should return a value that we expect, as shown in Figure 10-12.
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Figure 10-12. Complex stored procedure output
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User-Defined Functions
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As you have just seen, a stored procedure takes a set of data, completes the work as required, and then finishes. It is not possible to take a stored procedure and execute it within, for example, a SELECT statement. This is where user-defined functions (UDFs) come about. There are two methods of creating UDFs: through T-SQL or .NET. Both provide the same functionality, which takes a set of information and produces output that the query invoking the function can further use. UDFs are very similar to stored procedures, but it is their ability to be used within another query that provides their power. You have already seen a few system-defined functions within this book, including GETDATE(), which gets today s date and time and returns it within a query such as SELECT GETDATE().
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CHAPTER 10 S TORED PROCEDURES AN D FUNC TIONS
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Tip
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If you want to learn more about .NET-based functions, take a look at Pro SQL Server 2005 Assemblies by Julian Skinner and Robin Dewson (Apress, 2005).
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Scalar Functions
Functions come in two types: scalar and table-valued. The following shows the basic syntax to define a scalar function: CREATE FUNCTION [ schema_name. ] function_name ( [ { @parameter_name _data_type [ = default ] [ READONLY ] } [ ,...n ] RETURNS return_data_type [ WITH <function_option> [ ,...n ] ] [ AS ] BEGIN function_body RETURN scalar_expression END ] )
Note that zero, one, or more parameters can be passed in to the function. Prefix each parameter in the definition with the local variable definition @ sign, and define the data type. Every parameter can be modified within the function as part of the function s execution, unless you place the keyword READONLY after the data type. Also, as with stored procedures, it is possible to call a function without specifying one or more of that function s parameters. However, you can only do that if the parameters that you omit have been defined to have default values. In that case, you can call the function with the keyword DEFAULT in the location that the parameter is expected. The use of default values is demonstrated within the example that follows. A scalar function can only return a single value, and the RETURNS clause in the definition defines the type of data that will be returned. All data types, with the exception of the timestamp data type, can be returned. The contents of a function are similar to a stored procedure, with the exceptions already discussed. You must place a RETURN statement when you want the function to complete and return control to the calling code.
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