c# barcode generator library Actually, str is a type, just like int and long. repr, however, is simply a function. in Font

Drawing PDF 417 in Font Actually, str is a type, just like int and long. repr, however, is simply a function.

11. Actually, str is a type, just like int and long. repr, however, is simply a function.
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CHAPTER 1 INSTANT HACKING: THE BASICS
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input vs. raw_input
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Now you know what "Hello, " + name + "!" means. But what about raw_input Isn t input good enough Let s try it. Enter the following in a separate script file: name = input("What is your name ") print "Hello, " + name + "!" This is a perfectly valid program, but as you will soon see, it s a bit impractical. Let s try to run it: What is your name Gumby Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:/python/test.py", line 2, in name = input("What is your name ") File "<string>", line 0, in NameError: name 'Gumby' is not defined The problem is that input assumes that what you enter is a valid Python expression (it s more or less the inverse of repr). If you write your name as a string, that s no problem: What is your name "Gumby" Hello, Gumby! However, it s just a bit too much to ask that users write their name in quotes like this. Therefore, we use raw_input, which treats all input as raw data and puts it into a string: >>> input("Enter a number: ") Enter a number: 3 3 >>> raw_input("Enter a number: ") Enter a number: 3 '3' Unless you have a special need for input, you should probably use raw_input.
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Long Strings, Raw Strings, and Unicode
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Before ending this chapter, I want to tell you about a few other ways of writing strings. These alternate string syntaxes can be useful when you have strings that span several lines or contain various special characters.
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Long Strings
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If you want to write a really long string, one that spans several lines, you can use triple quotes instead of ordinary quotes: print '''This is a very long string. It continues here. And it's not over yet. "Hello, world!" Still here.'''
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CHAPTER 1 INSTANT HACKING: THE BASICS
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You can also use triple double quotes, """like this""". Note that because of the distinctive enclosing quotes, both single and double quotes are allowed inside, without being backslashescaped.
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Tip Ordinary strings can also span several lines. If the last character on a line is a backslash, the line break itself is escaped and ignored. For example:
print "Hello, \ world!"
would print out Hello, world!. The same goes for expressions and statements in general:
>>> 1 + 2 + \ 4 + 5 12 >>> print \ 'Hello, world' Hello, world
Raw Strings
Raw strings aren t too picky about backslashes, which can be very useful sometimes.12 In ordinary strings, the backslash has a special role: it escapes things, letting you put things into your string that you couldn t normally write directly. For example, a new line is written \n, and can be put into a string like this: >>> print 'Hello,\nworld!' Hello, world! This is normally just dandy, but in some cases, it s not what you want. What if you wanted the string to include a backslash followed by an n You might want to put the DOS pathname C:\nowhere into a string: >>> path = 'C:\nowhere' >>> path 'C:\nowhere' This looks correct, until you print it and discover the flaw: >>> print path C: owhere
12. Raw strings can be especially useful when writing regular expressions. More about those in 10.
CHAPTER 1 INSTANT HACKING: THE BASICS
Not exactly what we were after, is it So what do we do We can escape the backslash itself: >>> print 'C:\\nowhere' C:\nowhere This is just fine. But for long paths, you wind up with a lot of backslashes: path = 'C:\\Program Files\\fnord\\foo\\bar\\baz\\frozz\\bozz' Raw strings are useful in such cases. They don t treat the backslash as a special character at all. Every character you put into a raw string stays the way you wrote it: >>> print r'C:\nowhere' C:\nowhere >>> print r'C:\Program Files\fnord\foo\bar\baz\frozz\bozz' C:\Program Files\fnord\foo\bar\baz\frozz\bozz As you can see, raw strings are prefixed with an r. It would seem that you can put anything inside a raw string, and that is almost true. Quotes must be escaped as usual, although that means that you get a backslash in your final string, too: >>> print r'Let\'s go!' Let\'s go! The one thing you can t have in a raw string is a lone, final backslash. In other words, the last character in a raw string cannot be a backslash unless you escape it (and then the backslash you use to escape it will be part of the string, too). Given the previous example, that ought to be obvious. If the last character (before the final quote) is an unescaped backslash, Python won t know whether or not to end the string: >>> print r"This is illegal\" SyntaxError: invalid token Okay, so it s reasonable, but what if you want the last character in your raw string to be a backslash (Perhaps it s the end of a DOS path, for example.) Well, I ve given you a whole bag of tricks in this section that should help you solve that problem, but basically you need to put the backslash in a separate string. A simple way of doing that is the following: >>> print r'C:\Program Files\foo\bar' '\\' C:\Program Files\foo\bar\ Note that you can use both single and double quotes with raw strings. Even triple-quoted strings can be raw.
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