c# barcode generator library Common Sequence Operations in Font

Encoder PDF-417 2d barcode in Font Common Sequence Operations

Common Sequence Operations
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There are certain things you can do with all sequence types. These operations include indexing, slicing, adding, multiplying, and checking for membership. In addition, Python has built-in functions for finding the length of a sequence, and for finding its largest and smallest elements.
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Note One important operation not covered here is iteration. To iterate over a sequence means to perform
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certain actions repeatedly, once per element in the sequence. To learn more about this, see the section Loops in 5.
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Indexing
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All elements in a sequence are numbered from zero and upwards. You can access them individually with a number, like this: >>> greeting = 'Hello' >>> greeting[0] 'H'
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CHAPTER 2 LISTS AND TUPLES
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Note A string is just a sequence of characters. The index 0 refers to the first element, in this case the
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letter H.
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This is called indexing. You use an index to fetch an element. All sequences can be indexed in this way. When you use a negative index, Python counts from the right; that is, from the last element. The last element is at position 1 (not 0, as that would be the same as the first element): >>> greeting[-1] 'o' String literals (and other sequence literals, for that matter) may be indexed directly, without using a variable to refer to them. The effect is exactly the same: >>> 'Hello'[1] 'e' If a function call returns a sequence, you can index it directly. For instance, if you are simply interested in the fourth digit in a year entered by the user, you could do something like this: >>> fourth = raw_input('Year: ')[3] Year: 2005 >>> fourth '5' Listing 2-1 contains a sample program that asks you for a year, a month (as a number from 1 to 12), and a day (1 to 31), and then prints out the date with the proper month name and so on. Listing 2-1. Indexing Example # Print out a date, given year, month, and day as numbers months = [ 'January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', 'October', 'November', 'December' ]
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CHAPTER 2 LISTS AND TUPLES
# A list with one ending for each number from 1 to 31 endings = ['st', 'nd', 'rd'] + 17 * ['th'] \ + ['st', 'nd', 'rd'] + 7 * ['th'] \ + ['st'] year month day = raw_input('Year: ') = raw_input('Month (1-12): ') = raw_input('Day (1-31): ')
month_number = int(month) day_number = int(day) # Remember to subtract 1 from month and day to get a correct index month_name = months[month_number-1] ordinal = day + endings[day_number-1] print month_name + ' ' + ordinal + ', ' + year An example of a session with this program might be as follows: Year: 1974 Month (1-12): 8 Day (1-31): 16 August 16th, 1974 The last line is the output from the program.
Slicing
Just as you use indexing to access individual elements, you can use slicing to access ranges of elements. You do this by using two indices, separated by a colon: >>> tag = '<a href="http://www.python.org">Python web site</a>' >>> tag[9:30] 'http://www.python.org' >>> tag[32:-4] 'Python web site' As you can see, slicing is very useful for extracting parts of a sequence. The numbering here is very important. The first index is the number of the first element you want to include. However, the last index is the number of the first element after your slice. Consider the following: >>> >>> [4, >>> [1] numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] numbers[3:6] 5, 6] numbers[0:1]
CHAPTER 2 LISTS AND TUPLES
In short, you supply two indices as limits for your slice, where the first is inclusive and the second is exclusive.
A Nifty Shortcut
Let s say you want to access the last three elements of numbers (from the previous example). You could do it explicitly, of course: >>> numbers[7:10] [8, 9, 10] Now, the index 10 refers to element 11 which does not exist, but is one step after the last element you want. Got it This is fine, but what if you want to count from the end >>> numbers[-3:-1] [8, 9] It seems you cannot access the last element this way. How about using 0 as the element one step beyond the end >>> numbers[-3:0] [] Not exactly the desired result. In fact, any time the leftmost index in a slice comes later in the sequence than the second one (in this case, the third-to-last coming later than the first), the result is always an empty sequence. Luckily, you can use a shortcut: if the slice continues to the end of the sequence, you may simply leave out the last index: >>> numbers[-3:] [8, 9, 10] The same thing works from the beginning: >>> numbers[:3] [1, 2, 3] In fact, if you want to copy the entire sequence, you may leave out both indices: >>> numbers[:] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] Listing 2-2 contains a small program that prompts you for a URL, and (assuming it is of the form http://www.somedomainname.com) extracts the domain name. Listing 2-2. Slicing Example # Split up a URL of the form http://www.something.com url = raw_input('Please enter the URL: ') domain = url[11:-4] print "Domain name: " + domain
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