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Creation PDF417 in Font ABSTRACTION

CHAPTER 6 ABSTRACTION
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>>> storage['middle']['Lie'] ['Magnus Lie Hetland', 'Anne Lie Hetland'] Imagine writing a large program filled with updates like this. It would quickly become quite unwieldy. The point of abstraction is to hide all the gory details of the updates, and you can do that with functions. Let s first make a function to initialize a data structure: def init(data): data['first'] = {} data['middle'] = {} data['last'] = {} In the preceding code, I ve simply moved the initialization statements inside a function. You can use it like this: >>> storage = {} >>> init(storage) >>> storage {'middle': {}, 'last': {}, 'first': {}} As you can see, the function has taken care of the initialization, making the code much more readable.
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Note The keys of a dictionary don t have a specific order, so when a dictionary is printed out, the order
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may vary. If the order is different in your interpreter, don t worry about it.
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Before writing a function for storing names, let s write one for getting them: def lookup(data, label, name): return data[label].get(name) With lookup, you can take a label (such as 'middle') and a name (such as 'Lie') and get a list of full names returned. In other words, assuming my name was stored, you could do this: >>> lookup(storage, 'middle', 'Lie') ['Magnus Lie Hetland'] It s important to notice that the list that is returned is the same list that is stored in the data structure. So if you change the list, the change also affects the data structure. (This is not the case if no people are found; then you simply return None.) Now it s time to write the function that stores a name in your structure (don t worry if it doesn t make sense to you immediately): def store(data, full_name): names = full_name.split() if len(names) == 2: names.insert(1, '') labels = 'first', 'middle', 'last'
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CHAPTER 6 ABSTRACTION
Drawing Data Matrix ECC200 In None
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Code 128 Code Set A Scanner In Java
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for label, name in zip(labels, names): people = lookup(data, label, name) if people: people.append(full_name) else: data[label][name] = [full_name] The store function performs the following steps: 1. You enter the function with the parameters data and full_name set to some values that you receive from the outside world. 2. You make yourself a list called names by splitting full_name. 3. If the length of names is 2 (you have only a first and a last name), you insert an empty string as a middle name. 4. You store the strings 'first', 'middle', and 'last' as a tuple in labels. (You could certainly use a list here; it s just convenient to drop the brackets.) 5. You use the zip function to combine the labels and names so they line up properly, and for each pair (label, name), you do the following: Fetch the list belonging to the given label and name. Append full_name to that list, or insert a new list if needed. Let s try it out: >>> MyNames = {} >>> init(MyNames) >>> store(MyNames, 'Magnus Lie Hetland') >>> lookup(MyNames, 'middle', 'Lie') ['Magnus Lie Hetland'] It seems to work. Let s try some more: >>> store(MyNames, 'Robin Hood') >>> store(MyNames, 'Robin Locksley') >>> lookup(MyNames, 'first', 'Robin') ['Robin Hood', 'Robin Locksley'] >>> store(MyNames, 'Mr. Gumby') >>> lookup(MyNames, 'middle', '') ['Robin Hood', 'Robin Locksley', 'Mr. Gumby'] As you can see, if more people share the same first, middle, or last name, you can retrieve them all together.
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Generating EAN13 In Objective-C
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Note This sort of application is well suited to object-oriented programming, which is explained in the next
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Barcode Encoder In C#
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chapter.
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Encode GS1 128 In Java
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CHAPTER 6 ABSTRACTION
Quick Response Code Encoder In Java
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Creating QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In Objective-C
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What If My Parameter Is Immutable
In some languages (such as C++, Pascal, and Ada), rebinding parameters and having these changes affect variables outside the function is an everyday thing. In Python, it s not directly possible; you can modify only the parameter objects themselves. But what if you have an immutable parameter, such as a number Sorry, but it can t be done. What you should do is return all the values you need from your function (as a tuple, if there is more than one). For example, a function that increments the numeric value of a variable by one could be written like this: >>> def inc(x): return x + 1 ... >>> foo = 10 >>> foo = inc(foo) >>> foo 11 If you really wanted to modify your parameter, you could use a trick such as wrapping your value in a list, like this: >>> def inc(x): x[0] = x[0] + 1 ... >>> foo = [10] >>> inc(foo) >>> foo [11] Simply returning the new value would be a cleaner solution, though.
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