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So far, you ve seen that Action Mailer has extensive support for sending all types of mail messages. But what if your application needs to receive e-mail You can handle incoming e-mail in a Rails application a few different ways. This section explains how to use a Rails process and how to read e-mail from your mail server. The approach you choose depends a lot on your operating system and e-mail server.
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Using a Rails Process
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In an Action Mailer class, you can write a receive method that receives a Mail::Message object as a parameter, which corresponds to an incoming e-mail message your code can process. Inside the receive method, it s easy to extract details about the incoming e-mail, such as header, subject, body text, and/or attachments. For example, the blog application can have a special e-mail address (such as new@blog.example.com) that can be monitored to create a new article whenever an e-mail arrives. This way, users can send an email to new@blog.example.com and create a new article without needing to open their browsers. The implementation of this feature looks something like Listing 9-14. Listing 9-14. Example Mailer Class with receive Method class ExampleMailer < ActionMailer::Base def receive(email) article = Article.new article.title = email.subject article.body = email.body article.save end end This code is pretty simple and takes care of receiving mail; however, this is just the first part of the solution. The remaining part is tricky and may demand some research and system administration skills. You need to tell your mail server that it should redirect messages sent to a specific address to a special process. In this case, the process is the Rails runner script, which executes the Ruby code passed as parameter as if it were running from within a Rails application. You can see this technique in action by saving an e-mail message to any location on disk and invoking the receive method using the following command (POSIX only): rails runner ExampleMailer.receive(STDIN.read) < email.txt This chapter doesn t go into the implementation details of configuring a script to route incoming mail to your Rails process because it s impossible to cover all setups. Visit the Rails wiki at http://oldwiki.rubyonrails.com/rails/pages/HowToReceiveEmailsWithActionMailer to look up information about your particular setup.
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Reading E-Mail Using POP or IMAP
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If you don t have control over the e-mail server being used and can t write a server-side script, you can still read e-mail from your mail server as your regular e-mail client does. To do this, you can create a separate Ruby script that fetches e-mail, and run it as a background process that polls for new messages. The code in Listing 9-15 connects to a mail server through POP3 and checks a specific mailbox to see if any new e-mail has arrived. If so, the script reads that message and passes it to the ExampleMailer.receive method for processing. This example uses a POP3 server, but it could just as easily use an IMAP server. The only difference would be that you would use the Net::IMAP class instead of the Net::POP3 class to connect to the mail server. Both classes are part of the Ruby Standard Library.
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Listing 9-15. Sample Ruby Script for Reading E-Mail Messages Net::POP3.start("mail.example.com", nil, "username", "password") do |pop| if pop.mails.empty logger.info "NO MAIL" else pop.mails.each do |email| begin logger.info "receiving mail..." ExampleMailer.receive(email.pop) email.delete rescue Exception => e logger.error "Error receiving email: #{Time.now.to_s} - #{e.message}" end end end end This script starts by trying to connect to the POP3 server with the credentials indicated on the first line. As soon as the connection is established, it checks to see if there are any new e-mail messages by using the pop.mails.empty method. If there are new e-mail messages, it iterates through each of them, calling ExampleMailer.receive(email.pop). After a message is processed, it s deleted from the server to avoid reprocessing the same message the next time the script is called.
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In this chapter, you learned how to send e-mail from your web applications using Action Mailer. You configured Action Mailer to talk to your mail server and learned the most common configuration parameters you can use to fine-tune how Action Mailer works with your application. You learned that Action Mailer allows you to send e-mail messages based on templates, and how to use implicit parts for text and HTML messages, as well as how to use the attachment helper to add attachments to your messages. You also touched briefly on receiving mail using Action Mailer. The chapter only scratched the surface, this being a rather advanced technique. Still, you have a good starting point, should your application ever need to perform this task, and you know where to look when you need more information. This chapter brings is the end of your tour of the main Rails libraries: Active Record, Action Pack, and Action Mailer. The next chapter covers one of the most important techniques to improve the quality of your code: testing.
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