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CHAPTER 11 DEPLOYING YOUR RAILS APPLICATIONS
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deployment of an application to 15 servers manually has our respect, because it s a Sisyphean task of epic proportions. But with Capistrano, it s easy to control that complexity and ease most of the pain. Let s look into exactly what Capistrano does on each application server when you deploy an application.
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Capistrano on the Deployment Server
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Whenever you set up a Capistrano deployment on the actual remote deployment server, Capistrano creates a specific folder structure, which looks like this:
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my_app/ |-- current |-- releases | |-- 200701011200 | `-- 200701031140 `-- shared |-- config |-- logs `-- tmp
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# A link to the current release # An older release of the application # The current (most recent) release # Symlinked to current/config # Symlinked to current/logs # Symlinked to current/tmp
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The releases folder contains every version of the application that you have ever deployed since your last cleanup. Any time you do a new deployment, Capistrano puts a new version of the application in this folder, named by the timestamp of when it was deployed. The current folder uses UNIX s built-in symlink (think alias) feature to create a shortcut that always points to the currently deployed release. Keeping older revisions of the application ready to go means that if something goes wrong during a deployment, you can easily roll back to an earlier version of the application with the cap rollback command. All that Capistrano needs to do in that instance is point current towards an older release. Since you probably will frequently swap out your current release, it s important to keep some things common between each release, such as the logs, temporary files, and production configuration. The shared folder is used to house all of this information. You must manually tell Capistrano which shared files you want relinked on each deployment. However, this usually comes preconfigured with most Capistrano-based hosts.
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Custom Capistrano Tasks
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You can teach Capistrano to perform many other tasks. Suppose you would like to clear out a temporary folder every time you deployed With Capistrano, defining custom tasks like this is easy. As an example, here s a simple custom deployment task that allows us to quickly restart our particular web server on every :web server that we have:
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task :restart_web, :roles => [:web] do sudo "/etc/init.d/lighttpd restart" end
This custom task can be run from the command line on the client by simply issuing
cap restart_web.
To learn more about customizing and working with Capistrano, see the manual at http:// Tip manuals.rubyonrails.com/read/book/17. It s a great resource that can answer many of the more
advanced questions you might have when you start deploying your applications with Capistrano.
Setting Up Your Server Architecture
First things first. You re probably not a system administrator. If you want to learn how to be one, we suggest grabbing a book on the subject and spending your time getting well versed in the details of administration. Instead of focusing on the details of server administration, we re going to cover some of the high-level ideas that dominate the server architectures in the Rails world. You ll find these concepts helpful when you re discussing your options with different Rails hosting providers or server administration professionals, so that you will understand most of the terminology being used. There are two schools of thought regarding how to set up your web server architecture. The traditional way is what we refer to as monolithic. The other way is called proxy-cluster server configuration.
Monolithic Architecture
In a monolithic architecture, a web server like Apache is used as both the web-facing end of the server and the Rails stack, as illustrated in Figure 11-1. If a remote computer
CHAPTER 11 DEPLOYING YOUR RAILS APPLICATIONS
requests an image, Apache handles it directly. If a remote computer requests a dynamic page, Apache handles the request using its own captive Rails running inside the server. This means that Apache handles the request end to end, as the web server and the Rails server. In this setup, the glue that goes between Apache and the actual Rails code itself is FastCGI (FCGI), which is a protocol for interfacing any interactive programs with a web server. FCGI is a vast improvement over traditional CGI bindings.
Figure 11-1. Monolithic setup The problem with this setup is that occasionally your Rails applications might crash. Now, don t get into a panic. This is fairly rare. But what if someone sends you a packet of information that confuses your Rails application and it fails In a monolithic setup, if this happens, it very well may take Apache down with it. Another disadvantage is that if you need to upgrade the Rails code, you have to restart the whole stack at the same time. This results in downtime. Any request coming into the server while you are restarting fails. Even worse, if your code update contained a bug, you d be stuck with a server that is dead in the water. Monolithic web application architectures are extremely well tested and well worn. They are what drive most of the applications on the web today. The reason for this popularity is its maturity and the fact that you only need to understand how to run one type of system: Apache (or your web server of choice).
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