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APPENDIX A RUBY, A PROGRAMMER S BEST FRIEND
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If a method yields arguments to a block, the methods are named between two pipe characters (|) on the same line as the method call. Observe:
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[1,2,3,4,5].each {|item| puts item }
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1 2 3 4 5
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Here, each number is yielded to the block in succession. We store the number in the block variable, item, and use puts to print it on its own line. The convention is to use braces for single-line blocks and do..end for multiline blocks. Here s a similar example to the one given above, except that we re using each_with_index, which yields the item and its index in the array.
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["a", "b", "c"].each_with_index do |item, index| puts "Item: #{item}" puts "Index: #{index}" puts "---" end
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Item: Index: --Item: Index: --Item: Index: ---
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a 0 b 1 c 2
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Control Structures
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In all the previous examples, the Ruby interpreter has executed our code from top to bottom. However, in the majority of cases, you ll want to control which methods are to be executed and when they should be executed. The statements you want to be executed
APPENDIX A RUBY, A PROGRAMMER S BEST FRIEND
might depend on many variables, like the state of some computation or the user input. For that purpose, programming languages have control flow statements, which allow you to execute code based on conditions. Here are a few examples on how to use if, else, elsif, unless, while, and end. Notice that control structures in Ruby are terminated using the end keyword.
now = Time.now # => Tue Dec 05 23:25:56 GST 2006 if now == Time.now puts "now is in the past" elsif now > Time.now puts "nonsense" else puts "time has passed" end # => time has passed
A trick that makes simple conditionals easy to read is to place if and unless conditional statements at the end of a code line so they act as modifiers. Here s how it looks:
a = 5 b = 10 puts "b is greater than a" if a < b
b is greater than a
puts "a is greater than b" unless a < b
You can also use while statements, as in all major programming languages.
a = 5 b = 10
APPENDIX A RUBY, A PROGRAMMER S BEST FRIEND
while a < b puts "a is #{a}" a += 1 end
a a a a a
is is is is is
5 6 7 8 9
Methods
Methods are the little programmable actions that you can define to help your development. Let s leave irb for the moment and just talk about pure Ruby code. However, all of this should work if you type it into irb. Suppose that, several times in the application we re writing, we need to be able to get the current time as a string. To save ourselves from having to retype Time.now.to_s over and over, we can just build a method. Every method starts with def.
def time_as_string Time.now.to_s end
Anywhere in the application that we want to get the time, we just say time_as_string.
puts time_as_string
"Wed Jan 31 11:24:19 EST 2007"
See how easy that was Methods can also take in variables.
def say_hello_to(name) "Hello, #{name}!" end puts say_hello to "Hampton"
APPENDIX A RUBY, A PROGRAMMER S BEST FRIEND
"Hello, Hampton!"
Next we will look at how you can put methods together into groups to make them really powerful.
Note You already know that local variables must start with a lowercase letter, and can t contain any
characters other than letters, numbers, or underscores. Method names are restricted to the same rules. This means they can often look just like variables, and keywords (like if, or, when, and, and others) share the same set of properties. So, how does the Ruby interpreter know the difference When Ruby encounters a word, it sees it as either a local variable name, a method invocation, or a keyword. If it s a keyword, then Ruby knows it and responds accordingly. If there's an equals sign (=) to the right of the word, Ruby assumes it s a local variable being assigned. If it s neither a keyword nor an assignment, Ruby assumes it s a method being invoked and sends the method to the implied receiver, self.
Classes and Objects
We ve reviewed all of the basic types of items in a Ruby application, so let s start using them for useful things.
Objects
Ruby is what we refer to as an object-oriented (OO) programming language. If you ve never worked in an OO language before, the metaphors used can be quiet confusing the first time you hear them. Basically, objects are simple ways to separate your code and the data it contains. Let s say that we are writing a program to help track the athletic program at a school. We have a list of all of the students who are currently participating on a team, along with their student IDs. For this example, we re going to look at the rowing team. We could just keep an array of arrays representing the students on the team.
rowing_team = [[1982, "Hampton", "Catlin"], [1954, "Ryan", "McMinn"], ...]
So, we re just keeping an array of [id, first_name, last_name]. We would probably need to add a comment to explain this. And then if we wanted to keep multiple teams, we could wrap this all in a hash.
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