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CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
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After determining which controller to invoke, Rails proceeds to instantiate it and call its new method. Its default response after running the new action is to perform a render. Rails looks for a template named new.rhtml in the app/views/users directory and loads it. At this point, the request cycle, while not very eventful from the browser s perspective, is complete. If you refresh your browser, the cycle begins anew and the same result is rendered. Notice how all the internals are already taken care of for you. All you need to do is create an appropriately named controller, action, and view, stick them in the right place, and request the URL in your browser. Rails takes care of making sure everything gets knitted together properly.
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Note In edge-Rails, the .rhtml extension is deprecated in favor of .erb (for Embedded Ruby, or ERb).
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This isn t the case for the most recent stable version of Rails at the time of this writing (1.2.3), but it s something to keep an eye out for in the future. The .rhtml extension will still be supported for a long while and isn t scheduled to officially disappear until Rails 2.0.
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While we re kicking the tires, let s see what happens if we comment out the new action, like this:
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class UsersController < ApplicationController #def new # @user = User.new #end end
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If you refresh your browser, you ll notice that nothing has changed. No, that s not because the web server needs to be restarted, nor is it because the page is cached. As it turns out, even if an action is missing, Rails will still look to see if it can find a template named for the sought-after action and render it if found. After all, sometimes you need to render a template but you don t have any logic to perform. Before we go any further, use your browser s view source command to see the HTML that was produced. Now, if you know anything about HTML (and chances are you do), you ll quickly realize that we re lacking something here: the <html> tags. Sure, you see your content, but where s the layout Most web pages have headers, footers, sidebars, and other page elements that, when styled, make the page look pretty. Fortunately, Rails has a built-in facility for dealing with page layouts.
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Working with Layouts
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Rails uses layouts to interpolate the output of an individual template into a larger whole a reversal of the common pattern of including a shared header and footer on
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CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
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every page (which if you ve done any work in other languages like PHP or ASP will be all too familiar). The scaffold generator we ran in 3 created a layout file and placed it in app/views/layouts/events.rhtml. It s named after the controller we generated (events), and will be applied automatically to that controller only. That s the way it works in Rails. Just as an action tries to render itself using a view that matches its name, so does a controller attempt to use a layout that matches its name. However, we d like our layout to apply to all our controllers, including the one we re working on now. To have it apply to all our controllers, we can rename it to application.rhtml. Go ahead and do that now, and when you re finished, open it in your editor. You should see something like the file shown in Listing 6-3.
Listing 6-3. The app/views/layouts/application.rhtml File
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" /> <title>Events: <%= controller.action_name %></title> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'scaffold' %> </head> <body> <p style="color: green"><%= flash[:notice] %></p> <%= yield %> </body> </html>
At rendering time, the layout will yield the results of the template fragment s execution in place. See the <%= yield %> bit that we ve highlighted in bold That s the important part. Wherever you put the yield keyword is where your content will go. One more thing to note here: Rails is all about convention over configuration. Here, the convention is that a layout with the name application.rhtml is automatically applied to all templates unless an alternate is specified in the controller. This means that if you were to change the name of the layout as it stands, it wouldn t be automatically applied. If you wanted to apply a different layout to a given controller, you could specify it in the controller itself using the class method, layout.
class ExampleController < ApplicationController layout 'my_layout' # Will look for a layout in app/views/layouts/my_layout.rhtml end
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