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CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
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automatically turns form elements into a convenient hash that you can pass into your models to create and update their attributes. We ll put this feature to use in our next action, create, which we ll get to in a minute. First, let s take a deeper look at params.
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Processing Request Parameters
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Request parameters whether they originate from requests of the GET or POST variety are accessible via the params hash. To be specific, params is really a method that returns a Hash object so you can access it using hash semantics. Hashes in Ruby are similar to arrays, but indexed by arbitrary keys, unlike arrays which are indexed (and ordered) by number. (If you need a quick review of the Hash object, flip to Appendix A for a Ruby primer.) The value of any request variable can be retrieved by its symbolized key. So, if there s a variable called id in the request parameters, you can access it with params[:id]. Likewise, both the controller and the action name are also request parameters, stored in the params hash by the routing component when it picked apart the request. You can get their values by using params[:controller] and params[:action]. Just to drive this concept home, let s look at a sample URL and display the params hash that it would populate.
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http://localhost:3000/users/index name=arthur&number=1037 params #=> { :controller :action :name :number => => => => 'users', 'index', 'arthur', '1037' }
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Writing a Create Action
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With an understanding of params under your belt, let s continue developing our controller. The create action is the target of the form submission. As you saw in the error message you just triggered, you ll need to write this action if you expect anything worthwhile to happen. Let s do that now. Add the method shown in Listing 6-5 to your users controller, just under the new method:
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Listing 6-5. Create Action Added to app/controllers/users_controller.rb
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def create @user = User.new(params[:user]) if @user.save flash[:notice] = 'Thanks for signing up!' redirect_to :controller => 'events', :action => 'index'
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CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
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else render :action => 'new' end end
Let s walk through this. First, we initialize a new User object with whatever attributes come in via the params hash, storing it the @user instance variable. Then we try to save it. If the save is successful, we use a facility that Rails provides called the flash to set a message before redirecting to the index action on the events controller. The flash is a special kind of storage mechanism provided by Rails for convenience. It encapsulates the pattern of wanting to set a message on one action and have that message persist to the next, only to disappear after that action is rendered. This is useful for providing user feedback, as we re doing here to say Thanks for signing up. If you look back to your layout file in app/views/layouts/application.rhtml, you ll see where the flash message is displayed:
<p style="color: green"><%= flash[:notice] %></p>
The flash message we set will be available to the controller and action we redirect to (the index action on the events controller). Just like params, the flash is implemented as a Ruby hash. You store values in it based on a key. The key can be anything you like, but here we re using the symbol :notice, which is a Rails convention. When rendering a flash message that contains an error, we usually use the :error key. If the save fails, we render the new action again so that any errors can be corrected.
Rendering Responses
You already know that, by default, when an action has completed, it will attempt to render a template of the same name. Sometimes you want to render a different template, though. In the create action we just created, if the @user.save succeeds, we want to set a friendly flash message and redirect. However, if the save fails, we want to render the new template. If we didn t explicitly render new, the action would fall through to its default behavior and attempt to render a template named create, which, of course, doesn t exist. The render method takes several options for its first argument: :text, :nothing, :inline, and :update.
Note The :update response is fairly specialized. You use it when you re rendering Ajax responses, as
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