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Applying Filters to Controllers
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You apply filters using a declarative syntax. In this case, we want to check that a user is authenticated before we process a protected action, so we ll use the before_filter. Add the filter to the events controller, just inside the class body, as shown in Listing 6-22.
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Listing 6-22. Before Filter Added in app/controllers/events_controller.rb
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class EventsController < ApplicationController before_filter :authenticate, :except => [:index, :show] #... end
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Notice how we re able to selectively apply the filter to specific actions. Here, we want every action to be protected except for index and show. The :except modifier accepts either a single value or an array. We re using an array here. If you want to protect only a few actions, you can use the :only modifier, which, as you would expect, behaves the opposite of :except. We also want to use a filter in the users controller. Right now, anyone can edit a user as long as they know the user ID. This would be risky in the real world. Ideally, we want the edit and update actions to respond only to the currently logged-in user, allowing that user to edit his profile. To do this, instead of retrieving User.find(params[:id]), we ll retrieve the current_user and apply a filter to protect the edit and update actions. Listing 6-23 shows the latest version of the users controller, the updated code is highlighted in bold.
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CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
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Listing 6-23. Before Filter Added in app/controllers/users_controller.rb
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class UsersController < ApplicationController before_filter :authenticate, :only => [:edit, :update] def show @user = User.find(params[:id]) end def new @user = User.new end def create @user = User.new(params[:user]) if @user.save flash[:notice] = 'Thanks for signing up!' redirect_to :controller => 'events', :action => 'index' else render :action => 'new' end end def edit @user = current_user end def update @user = current_user if current_user.update_attributes(params[:user]) flash[:notice] = 'Information updated' redirect_to :action => 'show', :id => current_user.id else render :action => 'edit' end end def login if request.post if user = User.authenticate(params[:login], params[:password]) session[:user_id] = user.id redirect_to :controller => 'events', :action => 'index'
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CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
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else flash[:notice] = 'Invalid login/password combination' end end end def logout session[:user_id] = nil redirect_to :action => 'login' end end
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Adding Finishing Touches
We re almost finished with our work in this chapter. Only a few tasks remain. We need to spruce up our templates a bit and make them a little cleaner. We also need to make it possible for event owners to edit and delete their events. Finally, we want to update the layout and apply some CSS styles to make things look pretty. Ready Let s get started!
Using Action View Helpers
One of the ways we can clean up our templates is with helpers. Rails ships with a bevy of formatting helpers to assist in displaying numbers, dates, tags, and text in your templates. Here s a quick summary: Number helpers: The NumberHelper module provides methods for converting numbers into formatted strings. Methods are provided for phone numbers, currency, percentage, precision, positional notation, and file size. See http:// api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActionView/Helpers/NumberHelper.html for more information. Text helpers: The TextHelper module provides a set of methods for filtering, formatting, and transforming strings that can reduce the amount of in-line Ruby code in your views. See http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActionView/Helpers/ TextHelper.html for more information. URL helpers: Rails provides a set of URL helpers that make constructing links that depend on the controller and action (or other parameters) ridiculously easy. For more information, see http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActionView/Helpers/ UrlHelper.html and http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActionController/Base.html.
CHAPTER 6 ACTION PACK: WORKING WITH THE VIEW AND THE CONTROLLER
Let s take a closer look at two very handy URL helpers that you re likely to use often: url_for and link_to. The url_for method returns a URL that has been rewritten according to the given options hash and the defined routes. It has the following format:
url_for(options={})
You can provide the following options: :anchor: Specifies the anchor name to be appended to the path. For example,
url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'show', :id => 10, :anchor => 'comments' will produce "/posts/show/10#comments".
:only_path: If true, returns the relative URL (omitting the protocol, hostname, and port). It s false by default. :trailing_slash: If true, adds a trailing slash, as in /pub/archive/2007/. :host: Overrides the default (current) host if provided. :protocol: Overrides the default (current) protocol if provided. The URL will be generated from the remaining keys in the hash, and Routes will compose a query string for any key/value pairs not included in the route definition. For example, if you had a route defined as /events/show/:id and passed in additional parameters to url_for, such as print => true, the extra parameters would be rendered as http://example.com/events/show/1/ print=true. The default routes setup supports a typical Rails path of controller/action/id, where action and id are optional, with action defaulting to index when not given. Here are some typical url_for statements and their corresponding URLs:
url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'recent' # => 'http://example.com/posts/recent' url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'index' # => 'http://example.com/posts' url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'show', :id => 10 # => 'http://example.com/posts/show/10' url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'show', :id => 10, :print => true, :return => false # => 'http://example.com/posts/show/10/ print=true&return=false'
When generating a new URL, missing values may be filled in from the current request s parameters. For example, url_for :action => 'some_action' will retain the current controller, as expected. This behavior extends to other parameters, including :controller, :id, and any other parameters that are placed into a route s path.
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