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When a Rails application is created, the directory public/javascripts is created along with it. This directory is the default location for all the JavaScript files in your application. Five files are added by the rails command, as listed in Table 7-2.
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CHAPTER 7 IMPROVING INTERACTION WITH AJAX
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Table 7-2. JavaScript Files Automatically Created by Rails File
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prototype.js controls.js, dragdrop.js, and effects.js
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The Prototype library. The script.aculo.us libraries. Based on Prototype, these include additional functions and visual effects. The file to contain application-specific JavaScript code. You ll add JavaScript functions specific to your application to this file.
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application.js
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The files in Table 7-2 are the ones you need to import to use Ajax in your Rails applications.
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Now that we ve explained Prototype s role in Rails, let s get cracking using it in our events application. To start using Ajax in Rails, the first thing you need to do is import the required JavaScript files and make them available to your templates. The best place to do this is in your application s layout file. Open your layout file in app/views/layouts/application. rhtml and add the javascript_include_tag directive to the head section, as shown in Listing 7-1.
Listing 7-1. Importing the JavaScript File in app/views/layouts/application.rhtml
<html> <head> <title>Events</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" /> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'application' %> <%= javascript_include_tag :defaults %> </head> ... </html>
The :defaults option to javascript_include_tag instructs it to include all the JavaScript files from public/javascripts. You can also instruct it to load specific files by providing them as a comma-separated list. For example, to include only the prototype and effects libraries, you would use javascript_include_tag 'prototype', 'effects'. To run our first examples in this chapter, we ll create a new controller called ajax_ controller, where we can experiment. In reality, you would never create a controller
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVING INTERACTION WITH AJAX
named like this, but for these examples, it will suit us just fine. As always, to create the controller, use the generator:
$ ./script/generate controller ajax
First, let s try out the link_to_remote helper, which will get us started in Ajax land.
Making Remote Calls with link_to_remote
The link_to_remote helper creates a link that will use Prototype to send an XmlHttpRequest from the browser to the server in the background. The server receives the request as it does any other request, executes the action, and returns the result to the browser. The only real difference between link_to_remote and link_to (which you learned about in 6) is that the request is sent in the background. Let s start with link_to_remote in its most basic form. Create a new template in app/views/ajax/index.rhtml, and give it the code shown in Listing 7-2. Listing 7-2. The app/views/ajax/index.rhtml File
<%= link_to_remote "Run a controller method using Ajax", :update => "ajax_target", :url => { :controller => "ajax", :action => "simple_response" } %>
We ve given link_to_remote the following information: The text of the hyperlink. The element to update with the results of the controller action. Here, we ve used :update => "ajax_target" to indicate that we want to update the element with an id of "ajax_target". The URL to send the request to. Here we ve specified a controller and action using :url => { :controller => "ajax", :action => "simple_response" }. Make sure your local web server is running (./script/server) and point your browser to http://localhost:3000/ajax. You should see something like Figure 7-1. It looks just like a regular hyperlink, but the interesting part is yet to come.
Figure 7-1. A simple link in your web page
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVING INTERACTION WITH AJAX
When you click the link, the browser will make a remote request, invoking the simple_response action on the ajax controller. Of course, nothing will happen yet, because that method does not exist yet. The rendered output could be any type of output Rails is capable of rendering, as you ve seen in the 6 (on Action Pack). So it could be a new template, some text, a partial, or even nothing. (It will be nothing in rare cases when your application is called but doesn t need to render any output.) Let s add the simple_response method to the controller so we can see Ajax in action. Go ahead and add the code shown in Listing 7-3 to the ajax controller.
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