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Sending Incoming Email to a Rails Process
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So far, you ve seen that Action Mailer has extensive support for sending all types of mail messages. But what if your application needs to receive email You can handle incoming email in a Rails application in a few different ways. Here, we ll explain how to use a Rails process and how to read email from your mail server. The approach you choose depends a lot on your operating system and email server.
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Using a Rails Process
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In an Action Mailer class, you can write a receive method that receives a TMail::Mail object as a parameter, which corresponds to an incoming email message your code can process. Inside the receive method, it s easy to extract details about the incoming email, such as header, subject, body text, and/or attachments. For example, the events application could have a special email address (such as new@events.example.com) that could be monitored to create a new event whenever a new email arrives. This way, users could send an email to new@events.example.com and have a new event created without needing to open their browsers. The implementation of this feature would look something like this:
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def receive(email) event = Event.new event.title = email.subject event.description = email.body event.save end
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The preceding code is pretty simple and would take care of receiving mail; however, this is just the first part of the solution. The remaining part is tricky and might demand some research and system administration skills. You ll need to tell your mail server that it
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CHAPTER 8 SENDING AND RECEIVING MAIL
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should redirect messages sent to a specific address to a special process. In this case, the process is the Rails runner script, which executes the Ruby code passed as parameter as if it were running from within your a Rails application. You can see this technique in action by saving an email message to any location on disk and invoking the receive method using the following command (POSIX only):
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script/runner EventMailer.receive(STDIN.read) < email.txt
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We won t go into the implementation details of configuring a script to route incoming mail to your Rails process because it s impossible to cover all setups. Visit the Rails wiki at http://wiki.rubyonrails.com/rails/pages/HowToReceiveEmailsWithActionMailer to look up information about your particular setup.
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Reading Email Using POP or IMAP
If you don t have control over the email server being used and can t write a server-side script, you can still read email from your mail server as your regular email client does. To do this, you can create a separate Ruby script that fetches email, and run it as a background process that polls for new messages. The following code connects to a mail server through POP3 and checks a specific mailbox to see if any new email has arrived. If so, the script will read that message and pass it to the EventMailer.receive method for processing. This example uses a POP3 server, but it could just as easily use an IMAP server. The only difference would be that you would use the Net::IMAP class instead of the Net::POP3 class to connect to the mail server. Both classes are part of the Ruby Standard Library.
Net::POP3.start("mail.example.com", nil, "username", "password") do |pop| if pop.mails.empty logger.info "NO MAIL" else pop.mails.each do |email| begin logger.info "receiving mail..." EventMailer.receive(email.pop) email.delete rescue Exception => e logger.error "Error receiving email: #{Time.now.to_s} - #{e.message}" end end end end
CHAPTER 8 SENDING AND RECEIVING MAIL
This script starts by trying to connect to the POP3 server with the credentials indicated on the first line. As soon as the connection is established, it checks to see if there are any new email messages by using the pop.mails.empty method. If there are new email messages, it iterates through each of them, calling EventMailer.receive(email.pop). After processing a message, it s deleted from the server to avoid reprocessing the same message the next time the script is called.
Summary
In this chapter, you learned how to send email from your web applications using Action Mailer. We started by explaining how to configure Action Mailer to talk to your mail server, and showed you the most common configuration parameters you can use to finetune how Action Mailer works with your application. You learned that Action Mailer allows you to send email messages based on templates, and how to use implicit parts for text and HTML messages, as well as how to use the attachment helper to add attachments to your messages. We also touched briefly on receiving mail using Action Mailer. We only scratched the surface here, this being a rather advanced technique. Still, we provided you with a good starting point should your application ever need to perform this task, and you ll know where to look when you need to find out more information. This chapter brings us to the end of our tour of the main Rails libraries: Active Record, Action Pack, and Action Mailer. In the next chapter, we ll cover one of the most important techniques to improve the quality of your code: testing.
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