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So far, you ve been creating classes and objects with various changeable attributes. Attributes are data related to individual objects. A snake can have a length, a dog can have a name, and a cat can be of a certain color. What about the instructions I spoke of earlier How do you give your objects instructions to perform You define methods for each class. Methods are important in Ruby. They make objects perform actions. For example, you might want to add a bark method to your Dog class, which, if called on a Dog object, prints Woof! to the screen. You could write it like so: class Dog < Pet def bark puts "Woof!" end end After entering this code, any dogs you create can now bark. Let s try it out: irb(main):0> a_dog = Dog.new irb(main):0> a_dog.bark
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Woof! Eureka! You ll notice that the way you make the dog bark is simply by referring to the dog (a_dog, in this case) and including a period (.) followed by the bark method s name, whereupon your dog barks. Let s dissect exactly what happened. First, you added a bark method to your Dog class. The way you did this was by defining the method. To define a method, you use the word def followed by the name of the method you wish to define. This is what the def bark line means. It means I m defining the bark method within this class until I say end. The following line then simply puts the word Woof! on the screen, and the last line of the method ends the definition of that method. The last end ends the class definition (this is why indentation is useful, so you can see which end lines up with which definition). The Dog class then contains a new method called bark, as you used earlier. Think about how you would create methods for the other Pet classes or the Pet class itself. Are there any methods that are generic to all pets If so, they d go in the Pet class. Are there methods specific to cats They d go in the Cat class.
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In this chapter, we ve looked at how Ruby can understand concepts in the form of classes and objects. We created virtual cats and dogs, gave them names, and triggered their methods (the bark method, for example). These basic concepts form the core of object-oriented programming, and you ll use them constantly throughout this book. Dogs and cats are merely an example of the flexibility object orientation offers, but the concepts we ve used so far could apply to most concepts, whether we re giving a ticket a command to change its price or a user a command to change his or her password. Begin to think of the programs you want to develop in terms of their general concepts and how you can turn them into classes you can manipulate with Ruby.
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Among even object-oriented programming languages, Ruby is reasonably unique in that almost everything in the language is an object, even the concepts relating to the language itself. Consider the following line of code: puts 1 + 10 If you typed this into irb and pressed Enter, you d see the number 11 in response. You ve asked Ruby to print the result of 1 + 10 to the screen. It seems simple enough, but believe it or not, this simple line uses two objects. 1 is an object, as is 10. They re objects of class Fixnum, and this built-in class has methods already defined to perform operations upon numbers, such as addition and subtraction. We ve considered how concepts can be related to different classes. Our pets make a good example. However, even defining the concepts that programmers use to write computer programs as classes and objects makes sense. When you write a simple sum such as 2 + 2, you expect the computer to add two numbers together to make 4. In its object-oriented way, Ruby considers the two numbers (2 and 2) to be number objects. 2 + 2 is then merely shorthand for asking the first number object to add the second number object to itself. In fact, the + sign is actually an addition method! (It s true, 2.+(2) will work just fine!) You can prove that everything in Ruby is an object by asking the things which class they re a member of. In the pet example earlier, you could have made a_dog tell you what class it s a member of with the following code: puts a_dog.class
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Dog class isn t a method you created yourself, such as the bark method, but one that Ruby supplies by default to all objects. This means that you can ask any object which class it s a member of by using its class method. So a_dog.class equals Dog. What about if you ask a number what its class is Try it out: puts 2.class
Fixnum The number 2 is an object of the Fixnum class. This means that all Ruby has to do is implement the logic and code for adding numbers together in the Fixnum class, much like you created the bark method for your Dog class, and then Ruby will know how to add any two numbers together! Better than that, though, is that you can then add your own methods to the Fixnum class and process numbers in any way you see fit.
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