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CHAPTER 3 RUBY S BUILDING BLOCKS: DATA, EXPRESSIONS, AND FLOW CONTROL
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Another way to write this is with curly brackets instead of do and end. Although do and end are encouraged for multiple-line code blocks, curly brackets make the code easier to read on a single line. Therefore, this code works in exactly the same way:
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5.times { puts "Test" }
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You ll be using this style for single lines of code from here on, but will be using do and end for longer blocks of code. This is a good habit to pick up, as it s the style nearly all professional Ruby developers follow (although there are always exceptions to the rule). In Ruby, one mechanism to create a loop is called an iterator. An iterator is something that progresses through a list of items one by one. In this case it loops, or iterates, through five steps, resulting in five lines of Test. Other iterators are available for numbers, such as the following:
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1.upto(5) { ...code to loop here... } 10.downto(5) { ...code to loop here... } 0.step(50, 5) { ...code to loop here... }
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The first example counts from 1 up to 5. The second example counts from 10 down to 5. The last example counts up from 0 to 50 in steps of 5, because you re using the step method on the number 0. What isn t obvious is how to get hold of the number being iterated upon at each step of the way so that you can do something with it in the looped code. What if you wanted to print out the current iteration number How could you develop a counting program with these iterators Simply, you pass the state of the iteration to the looped code as a parameter, like so:
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1.upto(5) { |number| puts number }
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The easiest way to understand it is that the code between do and end is the code being looped upon. At the start of that code, the number from the 1 up to 5 count is sent down a chute into a variable called number. You can visualize the chute with the bars surrounding number. This is how parameters are passed into blocks of code that don t have
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CHAPTER 3 RUBY S BUILDING BLOCKS: DATA, EXPRESSIONS, AND FLOW CONTROL
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specific names (unlike methods on classes and objects, which have names). In the preceding line of code, you ask Ruby to count from 1 to 5. It starts with 1, which is passed into the code block and displayed with puts. This is repeated for the numbers 2 through 5, resulting in the output shown. Note that Ruby (and irb) doesn t (usually, there are exceptions!) care whether you spread your code over multiple lines or not. For example, this code works in exactly the same way as that in the previous example:
1.upto(5) do |number| puts number end
Floating Point Numbers
In 2 you ran a test where you divided 10 by 3, like so:
puts 10 / 3
The result is 3, although the actual answer should be 3.33 recurring. The reason for this is that, by default, Ruby considers any numbers without a floating point (also known as a decimal point) to be an integer a whole number. When you say 10 / 3, you re asking Ruby to divide two integers, and Ruby gives you an integer as a result. Let s refine the code slightly:
puts 10.0 / 3.0
3.33333333333
Now you get the desired result. Ruby is now working with number objects of the
Float class, and returns a Float, giving you the level of precision you d expect.
There might be situations where you don t have control over the incoming numbers, but you still want to have them treated as floats. Consider a situation where a user enters two numbers to be divided, and the numbers require a precise answer:
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