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CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPING A BASIC RUBY APPLICATION
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Type this into analyzer.rb and run the code. If text.txt is in the current directory, the result is that you ll see the entire text file flying up the screen. You re asking the File class to open up text.txt, and then, much like with an array, you can call the each method on the file directly, resulting in each line being passed to the inner code block one by one, where puts sends the line as output to the screen. (In 9 you ll look at how file access and manipulation work in more detail, along with better techniques than are used in this chapter!) Edit the code to look like this instead:
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line_count = 0 File.open("text.txt").each { |line| line_count += 1 } puts line_count
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You initialize line_count to store the line count, then open the file and iterate over each line, while incrementing line_count by 1 each time. When you re done, you print the total to the screen (approximately 121 if you re using the Oliver Twist chapter). You have your first statistic! You ve counted the lines, but still don t have access to the contents of the file to count the words, paragraphs, sentences, and so forth. This is easy to fix. Let s change the code a little, and add a variable, text, to collect the lines together as one as we go:
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text='' line_count = 0 File.open("text.txt").each do |line| line_count += 1 text << line end puts "#{line_count} lines"
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Note Remember that using { and } to surround blocks is the standard style for single line blocks, but
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using do and end is preferable for multiline blocks. However, this is a convention rather than a requirement.
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Compared to your previous attempt, this code introduces the text variable and adds each line onto the end of it in turn. When the iteration over the file has finished that is, when you run out of lines text contains the entire file in a single string ready for you to use. That s a simple-looking way to get the file into a single string and count the lines, but File also has other methods that can be used to read files more quickly. For example, you can rewrite the preceding code like this:
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lines = File.readlines("text.txt") line_count = lines.size text = lines.join puts "#{line_count} lines"
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Much simpler! File implements a readlines method that reads an entire file into an array, line by line. You can use this both to count the lines and join them all into a single string.
Counting Characters
The second easiest statistic to work out is the number of characters in the file. As you ve collected the entire file into the text variable, and text is a string, you can use the length method that all strings supply to get the exact size of the file, and therefore the number of characters. To the end of the previous code in analyzer.rb, add the following:
total_characters = text.length puts "#{total_characters} characters"
If you ran analyzer.rb now with the Oliver Twist text, you d get output like this:
121 lines 6165 characters
The second statistic you wanted to get relating to characters was a character total excluding whitespace. If you can remember back to 3, strings have a gsub method that performs a global substitution (like a search and replace) upon the string. For example:
"this is a test".gsub(/t/, 'X')
Xhis is a XesX
You can use gsub to eradicate the spaces from your text string in the same way, and then use the length method to get the length of the newly de-spacified text. Add the following code to analyzer.rb:
total_characters_nospaces = text.gsub(/\s+/, '').length puts "#{total_characters_nospaces} characters excluding spaces"
CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPING A BASIC RUBY APPLICATION
If you run analyzer.rb in its current state against the Oliver Twist text, the results should be similar to the following:
121 lines 6165 characters 5055 characters (excluding spaces)
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